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Zmigrod Nowy

ZMIGROD NOWY

ZMIGROD NOWY , village near Jaslo in Rzeszow province, S. Poland, passed to Austria in 1772, and reverted to Poland after World War i. Jews first settled there in the early 16th century. By the middle of the century they had established an organized community under the jurisdiction of the *Szydlowieckahal in *Sandomierz-Krakow province. In 1692 Menahem Mendel b. Ẓevi Hirsh of Poznan became av bet din in Zmigrod Nowy. He was succeeded by Benjamin Wolf who later became rabbi of Dessau and *Metz. In 1765 there were 683 Jews who paid the poll tax living in Zmigrod Nowy, and 1,025 living in 143 surrounding villages; there were 68 Jewish houses in Zmigrod Nowy; a synagogue had been built in the early 17th century. Until Zmigrod Nowy passed to Austria in 1772, Jews there mainly engaged in the import of wines and horses from Hungary, tailoring, and hat making. In the 19th century Jews in Zmigrod Nowy were mainly occupied in trade in timber and grain, the leasing of flour mills and engraving. The Jewish population numbered 1,330 in 1880 (53% of the total), 1,240 (54%) in 1900, and 940 (48%) in 1921.

[Shimshon Leib Kirshenboim]

Holocaust Period

During 1940–41 the Jews suffered from administrative and economic restrictions and forced labor. The Jews of the entire area were concentrated in the city, and in the summer of 1942 hundreds of Jews were killed. Later about 500 people were sent to the Plaszow labor camp, where many of them met their death. The remnants of the community were sent to the *Belzec death camp in the autumn of 1942.

[Aharon Weiss]

bibliography:

R. Mahler, Yidn in Amolikn Poyln in Likht fun Tsifern (1958), index; B. Wasiutyński, Ludność żydowska w Polsce w wiekach xix i xx (1930), 133; M. Balaban, Historja Żydów w Krakowie i na Kazimierzu, 2 vols. (1931–36), index; I. Schiper, Dzieje handlu żydowskiego na ziemiach polskich (1937), index.

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