Ripalda, Juan Martînez de

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Jesuit theologian; b. Pamplona, Navarre, 1594; d. Madrid, April 26, 1648. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1609. After the usual course of studies, he began his teaching career in 1619 at Monforte, where he lectured in philosophy for four years. He then went to Salamanca, where for many years he held the chair of dogmatic theology with great renown. From Salamanca he was summoned by royal decree to teach moral theology at the Imperial College of Madrid. He was later appointed censor to the Inquisition, and confessor of Philip IV's favorite, De Olivares, whom he followed upon his exile from Madrid in 1643. Ripalda was a good religious, noted for his innocence. A keenness of mind and clarity of expression made up for his lack of physical strength. He is ranked with Lugo among the best theologians of Spain at the time, and perhaps of all Europe. Some of his more notable theological opinions are: (1) Prescinding from the actual Divine Law and considering only natures, faith obtained by contemplation of created things would be sufficient for salvation, although assent comes only through grace. (2) The formal object of faith is God's faithfulness, constancy of will, and efficacy of power. (3) The sense baius gave his propositions was condemned as well as the words. (4) God can create a being to whom supernatural grace is due. (5) Supernatural grace is conferred for every good act; thus every good natural act is accompanied by a supernatural act. (6) The Divine maternity of Mary is itself formally sanctifying.

Ripalda's principal work is De ente supernaturali disputationes in universam theologiam (v.1 Bordeaux 1634; v.2 Lyons 1645; v.3 Adversus Bajanos, Cologne 1648). This work includes many questions not treated in standard texts. The last volume elicited an anonymous attack, attributed to Sinnich, P. Joannis Martinez Vulpes capta per theologos Academiae Lovaniensis. His other published works are: Expositio brevis literae Magistri Sententiarum (Salamanca 1635), and the Tractatus theologici et scholastici de virtutibus, fide, spe et charitate (Lyons 1652). There are two collections of his works: Vives (8 v. Paris 187173), Palmé (4 v. Rome 187071). Another work, Discurso sobre la elección de successor del pontificado en vida del pontifice (Seville), is attributed also to him. Several other writings are preserved in manuscript at Salamanca and at the Biblioteca Nacional.

Bibliography: c. sommervogel et al, Bibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jésus, 11 v. (BrusselsParis 18901932; v. 12 suppl.1960) 5:640643. h. hurter, Nomenclator literarius theologiae catholicae, 5 vol. in 6 (3d ed. Innsbruck 190313) 3:928930. p. de ribadeneira, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Societatis Jesu (Rome 1676). a. astrain, Historia de la Compagñia de Jesús en la asistencia de España, 7 v. (Madrid 190225) v.5. g. r. de yurre, "La teoría de la maternidad divina, formalmente santificante en Ripalda y Scheeben," Estudios Marianos 3 (1944) 255286. a. arbeloa egÜes, La Doctrina de la predestinación y de la Gracia eficaz en Juan Martinez Ripalda (Pamplona 1950). n. antonio, Bibliotheca hispana nova, 2 v. (Madrid 178388) 1:736737. p. dumont, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. a. vacant et al., 15 v. (Paris 190350; Tables générales 1951) 13.2:271237.

[j. e. koehler]