Ratherius of Verona
RATHERIUS OF VERONA
Benedictine of lobbes, bishop of Verona (931–968) and Liège (953–956), theologian; b. near Liège, c. 890;d. Namur, Belgium, April 25, 974. Ratherius was restless, ambitious, tactless, well read in the classics and the Fathers, and an accuser and defender of himself; yet he was ever the monk, intransigently set upon immediate reform of his clergy, easily finding protectors among the great, and making enemies among his subordinates. He accompanied his deposed abbot and rejected bishop, Hilduin, to Hugh of Provence, King of Italy (920), and succeeded Hilduin as bishop of Verona (931). Objecting to the king's meddling in ecclesiastical matters, he was imprisoned near Pavia (934–936) where he composed his most important work, Praeloquia, a guide to right living, and was subsequently exiled to Como (936–939).
Upon his release, he stopped in Provence (939–944) on his way back to Lobbes. Recalled to Verona by Hugh (946), he again had to flee to Provence (948). He campaigned with Emperor otto i's son Ludolph and with Otto (948–951), was summoned from Lobbes by Otto to teach in the palace school (952), and was made bishop of Liège by Otto's brother, Abp. bruno of cologne (953). When forced to flee after an uprising, he took refuge with Abp. William of Mainz and acted as abbot of aulne-sur-sambre (956), where he composed Conclusio deliberativa, Phrenesis, and Excerptum ex dialogo confessionali.
Recalled to Verona by Otto (962), he finally yielded his see (968) after further struggles with his clergy and returned to Lobbes. He intrigued unsuccessfully against Abbot folcwin of Lobbes and was forced to return to Aulne. He died on a visit to the Count of Namur. Besides the works mentioned and a number of pamphlets composed at Verona (962–968) and at Aulne, he left 34 letters and several sermons.
Bibliography: Works. Patrologia Latina, ed. j. p. migne (Paris 1878–90) 136:9–768, on which cf. É. amann, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. a. vacant et al., (Paris 1903–50) 13.2:1679–88. f. weigle, Die Briefe des Bischofs Rather von Verona (Monumentua Germaniae Historica Die Briefe der deutschen Kaiserzeit 1; Weimar 1949); "Die Briefe Rathers von V.," Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters 1 (1937) 147–194; "R. von V. im Kampf um das Kirchengut 961–968," Quellen und Forschungen aus italienischen Archiven und Bibliltheken 28 (1937) 1–35; "Zur Geschichte des Bischofs R. von V.," Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters 5 (1942) 347–386. a. vogel, R. von V. und das 10. Jahrhundert, 2 v. in 1 (Jena 1854). b. schwark, Bischof R. von Verona als Theologe (Königsberg 1916). m. manitius, Geschichte der lateinischen Literatur des Mittelalters (Munich 1911–31) 2:34–52. a. adam, Arbeit und Besitz nach R. von V. (Freiburg 1927). g. monticelli, Raterio, vescovo di Verona, 890–974 (Milan 1938). g. misch, Geschichte der Autobiographie, v.2.2 (3d ed. Frankfurt a. M. 1955) 519–650. h. m. klinkenberg, "Versuche und Untersuchungen zur Autobiographie bei R. von V.," Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 38 (1956) 265–314. c. leonardi, "Raterio e Marziano Capella," Italia medioevale e umanistica 2 (1959) 73–102. g. billanovich, "Dal Livio di Raterio (Laur. 63, 19) al Livio del Petrarca (B.M. Harl.2493),"ibid., 103–178.
[j. n. garvin]