Pie, Louis François Désiré

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French cardinal, bishop of Poitiers; b. Pontgouin (Eure-et-Loir), Sept. 26, 1815; d. Angoulême, May 18, 1880. After studies at the seminary of Saint-Sulpice in Paris, he was ordained (1839), became curate at the cathedral of Chartres, and in 1844 vicar-general of the diocese. As bishop of Poitiers (184980) he constantly upheld the rights of the Church and the Holy See, notably during the invasions of the States of the Church after 1860. A discourse by him on this topic in his cathedral caused him to be haled before the Council of State. He defended the syllabus of errors against dupanloup and others. At vatican council i Pie, who had been a strong promoter of ultramontanism, was president of the commission on faith and took a leading role in the definition of papal infallibility. Naturalism, liberalism, and other modern errors found in him a sturdy opponent. Politically he was a monarchist, a follower of the Bourbon claimant to the throne, Comte Henri de Chambord. A promoter of provincial councils, he was appointed by the bishops of the Bordeaux province to edit the statutes elaborated at diocesan synods. His episcopal ministry was marked by frequent pastoral visits, numerous discourses, the dedication of more than 120 churches, the introduction of many religious congregations into his diocese, the creation of a diocesan society of missionary priests called the Oblates of St. Hilary, the establishment of an institution of higher theological education entrusted to the Jesuits, and the development of various religious and charitable works.

Pie's numerous publications bear the stamp of his talent as writer and orator and of his scriptural, patristic, and theological knowledge, although he has been judged more facile than profound. His discourses of all types were collected in nine volumes, Discours et instructions pastorales (185879). The Oeuvres de Mgr l'évêque de Poitiers saw numerous editions between 1865 and 1894. In 1878 appeared volume 1 of Oeuvres choisies, comprising Instructions synodales sur les principales erreurs du temps présent, suivies de l'Instruction synodale sur la première constitution dogmatique du concile du Vatican. A two-volume selection of his sermons and instructions between 1839 and 1849 appeared in Oeuvres sacerdotales (189195). Many of his discourses, funeral eulogies, letters, and synodal instructions were printed separately. He also left in manuscript a large correspondence, numerous homilies, an Essai sur le concile du Vatican, and other longer works. In 1879 he became a cardinal.

Bibliography: l. baunard, Histoire du cardinal Pie, 2 v. (Paris 1886). j. m. besse, Le Cardinal Pie (Paris 1903). e. catta, La Doctrine politique et sociale du cardinal Pie (Paris 1959). c. butler, The Vatican Council, 2 v. (New York 1930), with photo. c. constantin, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. a. vacant et al., 15 v. (Paris 190350; Tables générales 1951 ) 12.2:174043: r. aubert, in Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. j. hofer and k. rahner, 10 v. (2d new ed. Freiburg 195765) 8:495.

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