PENN, ALEXANDER (1906–1972), Hebrew poet. Born in Nizhne-Kolymsk, Russia, he came under the influence of Mayakovski, Yesenin, and *Pasternak, and wrote poetry in Russian. In 1927 he settled in Palestine where he founded, together with Nathan Axelrod, the first film studio. In 1929, encouraged by A. *Shlonsky, he began to publish his poems which were mostly lyrical, inspired by the Israel landscape. He was also, however, a pioneer of the topical political chanson. His poems were published in Ketuvim, Moznayim, Davar, and Turim. According to his own testimony, 1934 was a turning point in his literary work, when he cut down on his lyrical poetry and devoted himself increasingly to poems of political and social message, which he published mainly in the Marxist press. From 1947 he served as editor of the literary and art supplement of the Communist daily, Kol ha-Am. A selection from his poetry was published in Russian translation in the Soviet Union (1965), the collection of translations from modern Hebrew poetry published in Russian in the Soviet Union. After the 1967 Six-Day War, Penn left Maki, the Israel Communist Party, because of its "nationalistic regression." A collection of his poems (Beli Gag), including an introduction by Uzi Shavit, was published in 1985. The poems and songs written by Penn were edited and published in two volumes in 2005.
G. Kressel, Leksikon, 2 (1967), 643–5. add. bibliography: Y. Saaroni, Penn u-Fanav; Deyukan u-Sevivato, in: Siman Keriah, 2 (1973), 295–308; Y. Besser, "Shirah shel Mamashut Kefulah," in: Yedioth Aharonoth (November 18, 1977); P. Ginosar, "Shiro ha-Ivri ha-Rishon shel A. Penn," in: Hadaor, 56:33 (1977), 547; H. Halperin, Yesodot Statiyyim ve-Dinamiyyim bi-Yẓirot Alexander Penn ve-Gilguleihem (1986); idem, Shalekhet Kokhavim: Alexander Penn – Ḥayyav vi-Yẓirato ad 1940 (1989); S. Yaniv, "Le-Gilgulah shel Tavnit Dzenerit (Yesenin, Shlonksy, Penn)," in: Alei Siah, 27–28 (1990), 41–49; H. Alon, "Ha-Ḥavayah ha-Nashit be-Shirav shel A. Penn," in: Iton 77, 278 (2003), 14–16.
"Penn, Alexander." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 19, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/penn-alexander
"Penn, Alexander." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved February 19, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/penn-alexander
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.