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NADVORNAYA (Pol. Nadwórna ), city in Ivano-Frankovsk (Stanislavov) district, Ukraine. An organized Jewish community existed from the beginning of the 18th century. According to the 1765 census, 937 Jews paid the poll tax in Nadvornaya and the surrounding villages. During the second half of the 18th century the ḥasidic movement made its influence felt among the local Jews. Nadvornaya Jews engaged largely in agricultural trade and owned oil wells, refineries, and saw mills. In 1880 the community numbered 4,182 (64% of the total population); by 1900 the number had decreased to 3,644 (48%); and in 1921 only 2,042 Jews (34%) remained, because of the pogroms perpetrated by Cossacks, Ukrainians, and Petlyura soldiers during World War i. Between the two world wars many Jews earned their livelihood from the lumber industry.

Holocaust Period

In 1941 there were about 5,000 Jews in Nadvornaya. Under Soviet rule (1939–41), community institutions and all Jewish parties ceased to function. With the outbreak of war between Germany and the U.S.S.R. (June 22, 1941), the city was occupied by the Hungarians, who were allies of the Germans. Some 2,000 Jews were expelled to there from the Transcarpathian province. The Ukrainians attacked the Jews, murdering many of them and looting their property. In September the Germans entered the town. On Nov. 6, 1941, an Aktion took place in which about 2,500 Jews were killed, among them 1,000 expellees. In the winter of 1941–42 a number of Jews were taken to concentration camps. A ghetto was established on June 20, 1942, and in another Aktion in the summer of 1942, hundreds were sent to the *Belzec death camp. In September and October 1942 groups of Jews were transported to the ghetto at Stanislav and murdered there. Although at the end of 1942 the ghetto at Nadvornaya was destroyed, a few Jews succeeded in escaping and hiding in the surrounding forest; some crossed the border into Hungary. Jewish life was not reconstituted in Nadvornaya after the war.


R. Mahler, Yidn in Amolikn Poyln in Likht fun Tsifern (1958), index; B. Wasiutyński, Ludnóść żydowska w Polsce w wiekach xix i xx (1930), 101, 123, 154, 157.

[Aharon Weiss]