Molina, Luis de
MOLINA, LUIS DE
Spanish theologian; b. Cuenca, September 1535; d. Madrid, Oct. 12, 1600. Molina entered the Jesuit novitiate at Coimbra, Portugal, in 1553, studied philosophy there until 1558, and theology there and at Évora untill 563. Peter da Fonseca, alleged to have influenced his doctrine of scientia media, was never his teacher. After professing philosophy at Coimbra (1563–67), and theology at Évora (1568–83), Molina retired to write, spending time at Évora, Lisbon, and Cuenca. In 1600 he was called to profess moral theology at Madrid.
His published works are Concordia liberi arbitrii cum gratiae donis, etc. (Lisbon 1588); Appendix ad Concordiam (Lisbon 1589, bound in some copies of the 1588 Concordia ); Commentaria in primam divi Thomae partem (Cuenca 1592); Concordia (2d ed. Antwerp 1595); and De justitia et jure (1st complete ed., 6 v. Cologne 1613).
The Concordia is Molina's solution of the problem of free will and God's foreknowledge, providence, predestination, reprobation, efficacious grace, by scientia media. Comparison of both Concordia editions and the Commentaria (that contains some of the Concordia material) shows differences of expression, but none of doctrine. Though originally occasioning great controversy, the Concordia still presents one accepted solution of the problem it considers. It was edited critically by John Rabeneck (Oña-Madrid 1953).
The De justitia et jure marks Molina as one of the preeminent moralists and economists of his time. Molina published almost three volumes (Cuenca 1592–1600); the rest of the material, prepared by him, was published posthumously by his brethren. Many of Molina's unpublished writings were edited by Friedrich Stegmüller in his Geschichte des Molinismus (Münster 1935).
See Also: molinism; congregatio de auxiliis; free will and grace; grace, articles on; grace, controversies on.
Bibliography: e. vansteenberghe, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique. ed. a. vacant et al., (Paris 1903–50) 10.2:2090–92. f. stegmÜller, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. j. hofer and k. rahner (Freiberg 1957–65) 7:526. j. rabeneck, "De Ludovici de Molina studiorum philosophiae curriculo," Archivum historicum Societatis Jesu (Rome 1932) 6 (1937) 291–302; "De vita et scriptis Ludovici Molina," ibid. 19 (1950) 75–145; "Antiqua legenda de Molina narrata examinatur," ibid. 24 (1955) 295–326. b.w. dempsey, Interest and Usury (Washington 1943).
[f. l. sheerin]