MEM (Heb. מ, ם; מֵם), the 13th letter of the Hebrew alphabet; its numerical value is 40. In Proto-Sinaitic and early Proto-Canaanite inscriptions the mem was drawn as a pictograph representing water (mayim) or. In the later Proto-Canaanite script the vertical zigzag prevailed, which turned into in the tenth-century b.c.e. Phoenician script. Later, the mem consisted of a zigzag-shaped head and a downstroke. The Hebrew forms were: → (cursive) and (formal); hence the Samaritan. From the eighth and seventh centuries b.c.e., the Phoenician mem was written, which in the Aramaic became. In the late fifth century b.c.e. and later Aramaic cursive the downstrokes were bent leftward. Thus the medial and final variations evolved. These are prototypes of the Jewish medial and final mem forms. The Nabatean mem was drawn without lifting the pen and this led to the Arabic. The ancestor of the Latin "M," the Archaic Greek developed from the early Phoenician mem. See *Alphabet, Hebrew.
"Mem." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 22, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/mem
"Mem." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved September 22, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/mem
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.