Skip to main content

Fritsch, Theodor°


FRITSCH, THEODOR ° (1852–1933), German antisemitic publicist and politician. One of the leading early racists, in 1886 he joined the Deutsche Anti-semitische Vereinigung (see *Antisemitism) which strove to repeal the emancipation law. In 1887 he published the Antisemiten-Katechismus… (1887) as a catalog of "Jewish misdeeds." Later renamed Handbuchder Judenfrage, it went through 49 editions until 1944. In 1902 Fritsch established the periodical Hammer as a forum for antisemitic authors of the voelkisch movement in Germany. In the following years Fritsch played a leading role in the foundation of antisemitic and voelkisch organizations like the Reichshammerbund (founded in 1912), the Deutschvölkische Schutz- und Trutzbund (founded 1919), a mass organization with more than 200,000 members, and the Deutschvölkische Freiheitspartei (founded 1922, in 1924 Fritsch become one of its Reichstag members). The Nazis honored Fritsch as their Altmeister, and Hitler characterized the Handbuch der Judenfrage as important contribution that "paved the way for the National Socialist antisemitic movement."

add. bibliography:

Michael Bönisch, "Die 'Hammer'-Bewegung," in: U. Puschner et al., Handbuch zur "Völkischen Bewegung" 1871–1918, (1996), 341–65; A. Volland, Theodor Fritsch (1852–1933) und die Zeitschrift Hammer (1994); S. Breuer, Ordnungen der Ungleichheit. Die deutsche Rechte im Widerstreit ihrer Ideen 1871–1945 (2001); S. Tabary, "Theodor Fritsch (1852–1933). Le 'Vieux Maitre' de l'antisemitisme allemand at la diffusion de l'idée 'völkisch'," (Diss., Strasbourg 1998).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Fritsch, Theodor°." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . 24 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Fritsch, Theodor°." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . (April 24, 2019).

"Fritsch, Theodor°." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved April 24, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.