Constantine III Leichudes, Patriarch of Constantinople
CONSTANTINE III LEICHUDES, PATRIARCH OF CONSTANTINOPLE
Reigned Feb. 2, 1059, to Aug. 9 or 10, 1063; Byzantine scholar and statesman. Constantine belonged to the group led by Michael Psellus, who promoted learning and reorganized the university in the mid-11th century. Leichudes was prominent in politics during the reign of Michael V (1041–42); he became first minister (protovestarius ) under Constantine IX until deprived of office by the Emperor's jealousy. Leichudes then turned to scholarship and teaching, apparently again falling from favor toward the end of Constantine IX's reign (c. 1055). Like Psellus, he was evidently back at court after Constantine's death and was sent by Michael VI on an embassy to Isaac Comnenus, shortly to displace Michael on the throne. Isaac I selected Leichudes as patriarch of Constantinople on the death of Michael Cerularius (1059); and the patriarch subsequently gave Isaac ecclesiastical tonsure during his illness and abdication. During the reign of Constantine X (1059–67), Leichudes was associated with a policy of persecution adopted toward the Monophysite Syrians and Armenians, and two synodal decrees (1063) ordered the expulsion from Melitene of
all non-Chalcedonians and the burning of their holy books.
Leichudes was a close friend of Michael Psellus, who provided most of the information about him in his Chronographia and Funeral Oration. It was very probably Leichudes who asked Psellus to write the Chronographia. Leichudes was a distinguished scholar and orator, who had studied and taught rhetoric and civil law. He was also a wise administrator and churchman, a man of marked integrity who won the respect of his contemporaries.
Bibliography: m. psellus, Chronographia, ed. e. renauld, 2 v. (Paris 1926–28), Eng. tr. without Gr. text by e. r. a. sewter (London 1953); Funeral Oration on Likudes, ed. k. n. sathas (Bibliotheca graeca medii aevi 4; Venice 1874). v. grumel, Les Regestes des actes du patriacat de Constantinople v.1.1 (1932), v.1.2 (1936), v.1.3 (1947).
[j. m. hussey]
"Constantine III Leichudes, Patriarch of Constantinople." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.
"Constantine III Leichudes, Patriarch of Constantinople." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/constantine-iii-leichudes-patriarch-constantinople
"Constantine III Leichudes, Patriarch of Constantinople." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Retrieved October 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/constantine-iii-leichudes-patriarch-constantinople
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.