ASHMAN, AHARON (1896–1981), Israeli playwright, poet, and editor. Ashman, who was born in Russia, was active in the Jewish self-defense units during the Petlyura pogroms in the Ukraine at the end of World War i. His literary career began after his arrival in Palestine in 1921. He wrote poems (some of which became popular when set to music) and dramas, including a biblical trilogy Mikhal Bat Sha'ul ("Saul's Daughter, Michal," 1956) and a play about ḥalutzim, Ha-Adamah ha-Zot ("This Earth," 1943). Ashman translated many librettos for the Palestinian opera. In addition to teaching, Ashman edited school textbooks for the study of Hebrew, such as Aleh and Dabber Ivrit. From 1956 to 1961 he was president of the Israel Authors and Composers Association.