ASCOLI , Italian family, originating from the city of *Ascoli Piceno near Ancona. Members of the family are known from the 15th century. Among its members was jacob ben abraham of ascoli (15th century), rabbi, physician, and liturgical poet. He wrote two introductions to Nishmat Kol Ḥai, one beginning Yodu le-Shimkha Elyon, for the Day of Atonement, and the other Yifros Go'el Sukkat Shalom for the Feast of Tabernacles. david d'ascoli (mid-16th century) was the author of Apologia Hebraeorum (1559) in which he protested against the discriminatory anti-Jewish legislation of Pope Paul iv which enforced the Jewish *badge and established the ghetto system. As a result of his protest, David was imprisoned. A street in Ascoli has been named after him. albert abram (b. 1877) was a physician and educator. He was a pioneer in anti-tubercular vaccination and director of the Institute for Anti-Tubercular Vaccines in Milan (1924) as well as professor at Milan University. The author of some 180 publications, he received several decorations for his work. aldo (b. 1882), a much decorated naval officer, rose to be commander of the Italian fleet in the Aegean (1930) but, after the racial laws came into effect, was forced to resign (1938). alfredo (1863–1942) was a jurist. He taught law at Messina, Pavia, and Rome. Alfredo also wrote numerous works, particularly on Roman law, and played a prominent part in elaborating the new Italian civil code. emilia (b. 1873) was the author and writer of fables. She wrote under the pseudonym Liana. Her works include Favole (1914) and Canti Tricolori (1917). giulio (1843–96) was a mathematician, and associate professor at the Politechnico in Milan from 1879. He introduced the concept of quasi-uniform convergence and dealt with the theory of functions and problems of calculation. His works appeared in Brioschi's Annali di Matematica and other scientific publications. giulio (1870–1916), a physicist, was born in Trieste. He was noted for his research on metabolism and uremia. guido (1887–1957), a mathematician and educator, was professor of mathematics at the University of Pisa (1933–34), Milan (1934–38), and Turin (1949–57), specializing in analysis and geometry. maurizio (1876–1958), a pathologist, taught at Palermo (1920–22), held the chair of pathology at the University of Catania (1911–20, 1922–27), and became director of its medical clinic (1927). Among his major contributions were studies on immunity to various diseases, the influence of irradiation on the endocrine gland function, and the effects of drugs. moise (1857–1921), a physician, born in Gorizia, was professor of technical physics at the University of Rome. He dealt with the properties of metals, magnetism, and electricity, and published numerous articles in scientific periodicals. vittorio (1863–1931), a pathologist, was director of the Clinica Medica Roma and was famous for his studies on malaria, diabetes, and tuberculosis. max (b. 1898), a jurist and author, was professor of law at the University of Genoa (1926–31). After the rise of Fascism he migrated to the U.S. where he lectured at the New School for Social Research, New York, and became a member of the "University in Exile." After World War ii he participated in the restoration of artistic monuments damaged in the war. He was the author of several works on jurisprudence in Italian, and political writings, mainly on Fascism, in English. He was editor of the American weekly the Reporter (1949–68).
Roth, Italy, index; Milano, Italia, index; G. Bedarida, Ebrei d'Italia (1950), index; Dizionario biografico degli Italiani (1962); Nouvelle Biographie Universelle, 3 (1852), 422–3; Vogelstein-Rieger, 2 (1895), 45, 111, 153; jqr, 14 (1901/02), 389–90; M. Steinschneider, in: mgwj, 42 (1898), 263; A.G. Tiraboschi, Storia della letteratura italiana (Florence, 1805–18123), index.
[Nathan H. Winter]