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Siṅgh Sabhā (Hindī, Pañjābī, ‘Siṅgh Assembly’). Sikh movement to defend the panth against incursions by missionaries. The Siṅgh Sabhā was formed in 1873, with the intention of extending education, publishing, and reforming the management of the gurdwārās. The first president was Thakur Siṅgh Sandwalia, and the first secretary Giana Gian Siṅgh. The leading writer was Vīr Siṅgh, who also founded the first Pañjābī newspaper, Khālsā Samāchār. Khalsa College in Amritsar was established in 1892, followed by a proliferation of other Khalsa Colleges. As awareness of political oppression grew, the movement gave rise to the Akali Party.