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Ko Hung (c.280–340 CE). Chinese alchemist (according to J. Needham, the most outstanding in this field), best known as the author of Paop'u tzu ([Book of the] Master Who Embraces Simplicity). This consists of two parts: (i) tells of ‘gods and genii, prescriptions and medicines, ghosts and marvels, transformations, maintenance of life, extension of years, exorcising evils, and banishing misfortune’ (Ware tr., p. 17), and belongs to the Taoist tradition; (ii) gives ‘an account of success and failure in human affairs and of good and evil in public affairs’, and belongs to the Confucian school. He also wrote the Shen hsien chuan (Records of Gods and Immortals) and many other works.