Friends, The (Religious) Society of
The resistance of the Friends to 16th-cent. laws of religion led to considerable persecution. Many fled to the American colonies, where William Penn (1644–1718) founded Pennsylvania. Their spirit of personal truth was given classic expression in Robert Barclay's Theologiae Verae Christianae Apologia (1676: Apology for the True Christian Divinity, 1678). Despite Fox's Rule for the Management of Meetings (1688), which gave cohesion to the movement, there have been four subsequent divisions, especially that of the Hicksites, following Elias Hicks (1748–1830).
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