Dynasties, Muslim. The dynasties frequently mentioned here are listed in chronological order, beginning with al-Rashidun/ar-Rashidun, the Four Orthodox Caliphs, 632–61 (AH 11–40): Abu Bakr, 632–4 (AH 11–13), ʿUmar, 634–44 (AH 13–23), ʿUthmān, 644–56 (AH 23–35), ʿAlī, 656–61 (AH 35–40). Umayyad (Damascus), 667–750 (AH 41–132); ʿAbbasid (Baghdād), 750–1258 (AH 132–656); Umayyad of Cordova, 756–1031 (AH 138–422); Fāṭimids (Mahdiya and Cairo), 909–1171 (AH 297–567); Mamluk(e)s: Bahri, 1250–1390 (AH 648–792) and Burji, 1382–1517 (AH 784–922); Seljuq (Persia and Iraq), 1037–1157 (AH 429–552). The Ottoman Empire lasted 1299–1923 (AH 699–1341). Shahs of Persia include: Safavid, 1502–1736 (AH 907–1148), Qajar, 1779–1909 (AH 1193–1327), and Pahlavi, 1925–79 (AH 1344–99). In India dynasties include the Ghaznavid, 976–1186 (AH 366–582), and Mughal (Mogul), 1526–1858 (AH 932–1276).
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