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Dravya (Skt., ‘substance’). In Indian religions and philosophies, a term for the basic constituents of reality. The concept gave rise to philosophical debate and was a central factor in doctrinal divergence. For Jains, dravya represents the materiality of the cosmos from which the jīva seeks to be emancipated. It is basically opposed to bhāva, but for laypeople dravya must be related to bhāva, especially in ritual, as the base from which the ascent to mokṣa necessarily begins. Dravya is thus related to bhāva in ritual. Early Buddhism denied the idea of substance, all objects being a linguistic construction.