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Circumambulation. The movement around a holy object, or of a holy object. The completion of a circle of protection, or of community, creates an integrity which is otherwise hard to find in this world. The application of this in religions is diverse: examples include Ḥajj (the Muslim circumambulation of the Kaʿba); the Prayer Wheel (in Tibet); the stūpa and the Bo tree in Buddhism (see RELICS (BUDDHIST)); the respect shown to the Ādi Granth on entering a gurdwārā; Lāvān; the Hindu ‘following the sun’ round the sacred fire and, in the temple (and, in pradakṣina, to go around any sacred object, person, or place, including the whole of India; the seven circuits (hakkafot) around a cemetery before a burial by Sephardi and Hasidic Jews.

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