Skip to main content

Bihbahānī, Vahid

Bihbahānī, Vahid ( Aqa Muḥammad Baqir ibn Muḥammad Akmal, 1706–92 (AH 1118–1207)). Shiʿite scholar and definer of the Uṣūlī system of jurisprudence. In contrast to the traditionalist Akhbārīs (who required precedent for all decisions), he recognized the legitimacy of ijtihād and of the work of the mujtāhidūn, who apply principles to current issues and arrive at novel and unprecedented decisions. Aggressive in the extreme, he declared the Akhbārīs to be kāfirs (expelling them to a marginal existence in such places as S. Iraq), and he employed a religious police (mirghadabs, ‘executors of wrath’) to enforce his views— a kind of precursor of the Revolutionary Guards. He also greatly strengthened the authority of the ʿulamā, allowing the Mullas to follow his example and to declare themselves Mujtāhids and representatives of the Hidden Imām on earth. This theory of ijtihād, which led to the authoritarian development of Shiʿite Islam, is set forth in Risalat al-ijtihad wa'l-akhbar.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Bihbahānī, Vahid." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . 22 Feb. 2019 <>.

"Bihbahānī, Vahid." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . (February 22, 2019).

"Bihbahānī, Vahid." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved February 22, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.