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Ajātivāda (Skt., ‘the doctrine of non-origination’). According to the teaching of the early Advaita Vedānta philosopher Gauḍapāda, the entire phenomenal world characterized by the objects of sense experience is unreal, a mere appearance like the visions experienced in a dream, and the Self is not separate from the objects of experience. There is only one changeless Reality (Consciousness, vijñāna, or Brahman, or ātman), and all causality is mere appearance.