Württemberg (vür´təmbĕrk´), former state, SW Germany. Württemberg was formerly also spelled Würtemberg and Wirtemberg. The former state bordered on Baden in the northwest, west, and southwest, on Hohenzollern and Switzerland (from which it was separated by Lake Constance) in the south, and on Bavaria in the east and northeast. It included the Swabian Jura in the south and part of the Black Forest in the west. Stuttgart was the capital; other important cities were Ulm, Esslingen, Heilbronn, Tübingen, and Friedrichshafen. In 1952 it was incorporated into the new state of Baden-Württemberg.
The southern part of Württemberg was the core of the medieval duchy of Swabia; Württemberg N of Stuttgart was part of Franconia. The various territories were subdivided among the branches of the family, but in 1482 Count Eberhard V declared the indivisibility of the holdings. Württemberg was raised to ducal rank in 1495. In 1519, however, the Swabian League of cities, fearing the rising power of Württemberg, expelled Duke Ulrich I from his domains, and in 1520 it sold the duchy to the newly elected emperor Charles V.
Ulrich, a turbulent individual, never ceased in his attempts to recover his lands. A Protestant convert, Ulrich secured (1534) the help of Philip of Hesse, a leading defender of the Reformation, and, through Philip, of Francis I of France; at the same time the peasants of Württemberg were rising against the unpopular government of King (later Emperor) Ferdinand I. At the battle of Lauffen (1534), Ulrich and Philip routed Ferdinand's troops. Ferdinand was obliged to restore Württemberg to Ulrich, although nominally Ulrich was to hold the duchy as a fief from Austria. Immediacy under the empire was restored only in 1599.
With Ulrich's return, Lutheranism was introduced. However, large parts of S Württemberg remained in the hands of the house of Hapsburg and of a number of powerful abbeys; these territories were incorporated into Württemberg only later. As a result, a large minority of the present population is Roman Catholic.
Württemberg was repeatedly the scene of fighting in the wars of the 17th and 18th cent. Duke Frederick II (1754–1816), through his alliance with Napoleon I, obtained the rank of elector in 1803 and became king of Württemberg as Frederick I in 1806, after joining the Confederation of the Rhine. Between 1802 and 1810 the territories of Württemberg were more than doubled and reached their final frontiers after an alliance with France under Napoleon. Frederick retained both his royal title and his lands at the Congress of Vienna, after having passed (1813) from the French to the Allied camp.
William I, his successor, granted a liberal constitution in 1819. During the reign (1864–91) of King Charles, Württemberg sided against Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, joined Prussia's side in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, and became (1871) a member of the German Empire. Charles's successor, William II, abdicated in 1918, and Württemberg joined (1919) the Weimar Republic. After World War II, N Württemberg was a part of the temporary state of Württemberg-Baden, and S Württemberg was a part of the temporary state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern until the two were joined as Baden-Württemberg in 1952.
"Württemberg." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/wurttemberg
"Württemberg." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved March 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/wurttemberg
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.