Tver (tvĕr), formerly Kalinin (kəlyē´nyĬn), city (1989 pop. 451,000), capital of Tver region, central European Russia, at the confluence of the Volga and Tver rivers. A major port on the upper Volga, it is linked with Moscow by the Moscow Canal. An industrial center, Tver has industries producing linen textiles, light machinery, and rolling stock. The city grew around a fort established in the late 12th cent. It was early an important trade center, and from the mid-13th cent. until the late 14th cent. it was the seat of a powerful principality that rivaled Moscow. It was subjugated (1475–85) by Ivan III, grand duke of Moscow. Tver was renamed (1931) for M. I. Kalinin, a president of the USSR. It reverted to its original name in 1992. It is the site of a cathedral and castle, both from the 17th cent.
"Tver." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/tver
"Tver." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved July 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/tver
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.