Ngarta Tombalbaye (ən-gär´tä tŏmbəlbä´yā), 1918—75, president of Chad (1960–75). Born François Tombalbaye, he Africanized his given name in 1973. A businessman and school official, he became involved in territorial politics in the 1950s and served (1959–60) as premier. Elected president in 1960, he established dictatorial control. Opposition to his policies culminated in open rebellion in 1965 by the mainly Arab north. Despite an agreement with the rebels in 1971, fighting continued. In 1975 he was deposed and killed in a military takeover.
"Tombalbaye, Ngarta." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 20, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/tombalbaye-ngarta
"Tombalbaye, Ngarta." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved November 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/tombalbaye-ngarta
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.