Skip to main content

Singh, Manmohan

Manmohan Singh (mänmō´hän sĬng), 1932–, Indian economist and government official, prime minister of India (2004–14), b. Gah, West Punjab. Educated at the universities of Punjab, Cambridge, and Oxford, Singh taught at a number of institutions, including the Delhi School of Economics, and worked for the United Nations (1966–69). During the 1970s and 80s he held a number of government financial and economic posts, including economic adviser to the ministries of foreign trade (1971–72) and finance (1972–76) and governor of the Reserve Bank of India (1982–85), before becoming economic affairs adviser (1990–91) to Prime Minister Rao. Appointed finance minister in 1991, Singh introduced reforms that were credited with reviving the economy and initiating a decade of growth. A technocrat rather than a politician, Singh first served in the Indian parliament's upper house in 1991 as a member of the Congress party. He became prime minister when party leader Sonia Gandhi declined the office after the 2004 elections, and was the first Sikh to hold the post. His influence over his government was less than most prime ministers because of his lack of an electoral base. In the 2009 elections, Congress was returned to power with a larger plurality, and Singh remained prime minister. His government was subsequently tarnished by a series of corruption scandals, although he personally was not implicated in any of them, and Congress suffered large losses in the 2014 elections.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Singh, Manmohan." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 21 Apr. 2018 <>.

"Singh, Manmohan." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (April 21, 2018).

"Singh, Manmohan." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 21, 2018 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.