Karl Shapiro, 1913–2000, American poet and critic, b. Baltimore, studied Univ. of Virginia, Johns Hopkins. His interests in the aesthetics and artifice of modern poetry and the role of the poet as cultural spokesperson are expressed in his poems and his criticism. Shapiro's early volumes of verse—Person, Place, and Thing (1942), Place of Love (1943), and V-Letter and Other Poems (1944; Pulitzer Prize)—were written while he was a soldier in World War II and contain much of his best-known work. Later volumes include Trial of a Poet (1947), Poems of a Jew (1958), Adult Bookstore (1976), Collected Poems, 1940–1977 (1978), and Poet: Volume One: The Younger Son (1988). His critical essays were published in such volumes as Essay on Rime (in verse, 1945), In Defense of Ignorance (1960), The Bourgeois Poet (1964), To Abolish Children and Other Essays (1968), and The Poetry Wreck (1975). His only novel, Edsel, appeared in 1971. Shapiro also edited Poetry magazine (1948–50) and until 1985 taught at various colleges.
See his autobiography, Reports of My Death (1990).
"Shapiro, Karl." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/shapiro-karl
"Shapiro, Karl." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved March 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/shapiro-karl
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.