Skip to main content

Shapiro, Judith


SHAPIRO, Judith. American, b. 1953. Genres: Intellectual history, Politics/ Government. Career: Affiliated with Hunan Teachers College, Changsha province, People's Republic of China, 1979-81; Foreign Policy Research Institute, resident scholar, 1987-91; National Endowment for Democracy, senior program officer for Asia, 1992-94; teacher and lecturer at universities and other institutions. Publications: Dictionary of Current Americanisms, 1981; Mao's War against Nature, 2001. NONFICTION WITH L. HENG, EXCEPT WHERE INDICATED: Son of the Revolution, 1983; After the Nightmare: A Survivor of the Cultural Revolution Reports on China Today, 1986, as After the Nightmare: Inside China Today, 1987; Cold Winds, Warm Winds: Intellectual Life in China Today, 1986; (with J.H. Lennox) Lifechanges: How Women Can Make Courageous Choices, 1990; (ed. with V. Tismaneanu) Debates on the Future of Communism, 1991. Address: School of International Service, American University, 4400 Massachusetts Ave NW, Washington, DC 20016, U.S.A. Online address: [email protected]

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Shapiro, Judith." Writers Directory 2005. . 19 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Shapiro, Judith." Writers Directory 2005. . (April 19, 2019).

"Shapiro, Judith." Writers Directory 2005. . Retrieved April 19, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.