Ludwig Quidde (lōōt´vĬkh kvĬd´ə), 1858–1941, German pacifist and historian. He was elected (1907) to the Bavarian diet, was a member (1919–22) of the national assembly at Weimar, and later served in the Reichstag. Indefatigable in his attacks on German imperialism, he was briefly imprisoned for his brochure, Caligula: eine Studie über römischen Cäsarenwahnsinn [Caligula: a study in Roman Caesarean madness] (1894), an obvious polemic in which Caligula represented Emperor William II. A leading supporter of the League of Nations, Quidde shared the 1927 Nobel Peace Prize with Ferdinand Buisson. He lived in exile in Switzerland during World War I and again after Hitler's rise to power.