Qingdao (chĬng´dou´) or Tsingtao (tsĬng´tou´, chĬng´dou´), city (1994 est. pop. 1,584,100), SE Shandong prov., E China, on the Yellow Sea. With an excellent ice-free harbor, it is a major fishing and trade port of China, connected by rail with Yantai and Jinan. It is a special economic development port. The leading industrial city of Shandong, it has textile mills, food- and tobacco-processing plants, machine shops, breweries, paper mills, and plants making diesel locomotives, railroad cars, motor vehicles, tires, fertilizers, rubber products, and chemicals. The 26.4-mi (42.5-km) Jiaozhou Bay Bridge connects Qingdao with Huangdao; it is the longest cross-sea combination span in the world.
Leased to Germany in 1898 as part of the Kiaochow (Jiaozhou) territory, Qingdao became the administrative center of the leasehold and developed into a modern city. The Japanese held it from 1914 to 1922. Qingdao was a marine and naval base for the United States from 1945 to 1949, when it was abandoned and fell to the Communists. In the city are an astronomical observatory, two marine museums, Qingdao Technical Univ., a medical college, and several technical institutes. The city's name sometimes appears as Ch'ing-tao.
"Qingdao." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 19, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/qingdao
"Qingdao." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved January 19, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/qingdao
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.