Skip to main content

Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, Teodoro

Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, 1942–, Equatoguinean military and political leader, president of Equatorial Guinea (1979–). He graduated (1963) from Spain's Zaragoza Military Academy while Equatorial Guinea was still a Spanish colony, and after independence worked (1968–79) in various capacities for Francisco Macías Nguema, his uncle and the country's despotic first president. In 1979 Obiang Nguema staged a coup and installed himself as military chief and president. He had his uncle executed, declared amnesty for political prisoners, encouraged refugees to return, and instituted other reforms. Although a new constitution was promulgated (1982), opposition parties legalized (1992), and legislative elections held (1993), only one party, Obiang's Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea, had any real power and opposition was increasingly repressed. Obiang, who won landslide victories in the 1996, 2002, and 2009 elections, has solidified his dictatorial rule, which has been marked by rampant corruption and human rights violations.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, Teodoro." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 18 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, Teodoro." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (April 18, 2019).

"Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, Teodoro." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 18, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.