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Nabataea (năb´ətē´ə), ancient kingdom of Arabia, south of Edom, in present-day Jordan. It flourished from the 4th cent. BC to AD 106, when it was conquered by Rome. The history of Nabataea consists mainly of the struggle to control the trade routes between Asia and the Mediterranean. Petra, the capital city, is noted for its unique rock-cut monuments, tombs, and temples.

See study by J. I. Lawlor (1974).