Makhachkala (məkhäch´kəlä´), city (1989 pop. 317,000), capital of Dagestan Republic, SE European Russia, a port on the Caspian Sea. It is an important commercial and industrial center with oil refineries that are linked by pipeline with the Grozny fields. Machinery and textiles are manufactured. Founded in 1844 as a Russian stronghold, the city, called Petrovsk, was renamed Makhachkala in 1921.
"Makhachkala." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/makhachkala
"Makhachkala." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved September 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/makhachkala