Skip to main content


Kananga (kənäng´gə), formerly Luluabourg (lōōlwäbōōr´), city (1984 pop. 298,693), capital of Kasai-Occidental prov., S central Congo (Kinshasa), on the Lulua River. It is the commercial and transportation center of a region where cotton is grown and diamonds are mined. The city was founded in 1884 by the German explorer Hermann von Wissmann. In 1895, Batetela troops stationed there revolted after their chief was executed by authorities of the Belgian-run Independent State of the Congo. At first successful, the mutineers were finally defeated in 1901. Kananga grew rapidly in the early 20th cent. with the coming of the railroad. Many Luba people settled there and became economically dominant over the indigenous Lulua people. After the Congo achieved independence (1960), there were violent clashes between the Luba and Lulua, and many Luba fled to the short-lived (1960–61) Mining State of South Kasai. In 1961–62, the city was held by rebel troops from Équateur prov.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Kananga." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 23 Feb. 2019 <>.

"Kananga." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (February 23, 2019).

"Kananga." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved February 23, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.