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Jaén (häān´), city (1990 pop. 109,338), capital of Jaén prov., S Spain, in Andalusia. It is a marketing and distribution center for a fertile area producing olive oil and wine. Nearby lead mines are believed to be among the richest in Europe; iron and copper are also exploited. Once the seat of a small Moorish kingdom, Jaén was conquered by Ferdinand III of Castile in 1246. There are remains of a Moorish castle and walls; an imposing cathedral (16th–18th cent.); and several palaces.

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