Skip to main content

Jaffe, Israel ben Aaron

JAFFE, ISRAEL BEN AARON

JAFFE, ISRAEL BEN AARON (c. 1640–after 1703), kabbalist. Born in Uman (Ukraine), he fled at the age of eight to Glussk (Belorussia) on the outbreak of the *Chmielnicki persecutions (1648). He studied with *Isaac b. Abraham at Posen (Tiferet Yisrael, Frankfurt on the Oder (1774), 40b) and afterward continued his studies together with his friends Aryeh Loeb Epstein and Jacob Ḥayyat (ibid., 35a). Later he became rabbi at Shklov (Belorussia). Jaffe, who claimed to see heavenly visions, among which were revelations of the prophet Elijah, felt himself called upon to work for the messianic redemption. He appeared in numerous communities, in order to gain adherents for his kabbalistic theories and to scourge misdeeds. For the printing of his writings he went to Frankfurt on the Oder, where his work Or Yisrael (1702) was published (pt. 1: interpretations of the *Zohar; pt. 2: kabbalistic commentaries on Oraḥ Ḥayyim; in 1702 with approbations by numerous contemporary authorities). The work roused angry feelings in rabbinic circles, since the author was suspected of Shabbatean leanings because of the repeated use of the word ẓevi (interpreted as referring to *Shabbetai Ẓevi) in his work. In his apology, Jaffe attributes the incriminating passages to an alien insertion; by this he contradicts the testimony of his son Aaron, who had corrected the whole work. His grandson had this apology printed at the beginning of his excerpt from his grandfather's work Tiferet Yisrael, in order to clear him of the accusation of Shabbateanism. Although the rabbinic authorities had, in their approval to this work, confirmed the groundlessness of these accusations against Jaffe, the suspicion was nevertheless upheld by Jacob *Emden (cf. Torat ha-Kena'ot (Lemberg, 1870), 145, first printed Amsterdam, 1752, and Shevirat Luḥot ha-Aven (Zolkiew, 1756), 53b). On the other hand, *David of Makow, who was close to the circle of *Elijah Gaon of Vilna, took Jaffe's part in his anti-ḥasidic pamphlet Zemir Ariẓim.

The following works of Jaffe remain unpublished: Beit Yisrael, additions to the Talmud; commentary on the haftarot and the Five Scrolls; Yefeh Einayim; Milḥamot Adonai; and Tiferet Yisrael. Excerpts from the last three works were published by his grandson and namesake (who had the appellation Zuta to differentiate him from his grandfather) under the title Tiferet Yisrael (Frankfurt on the Oder, 1774); together with them are printed Kishut Tov by Moses b. Menahem and an excerpt from the works of Israel Zuta himself.

bibliography:

Z. Harkavy, Mishpaḥat Maskil le-Eitan (1953), 16–22; S.M. Chones, Toledot ha-Posekim (1910), 368; E. Kahan, Kinat Soferim (1892), 616; Fuenn, Keneset, 694–5.

[Samuel Abba Horodezky]

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Jaffe, Israel ben Aaron." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Dec. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Jaffe, Israel ben Aaron." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 10, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/jaffe-israel-ben-aaron

"Jaffe, Israel ben Aaron." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved December 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/jaffe-israel-ben-aaron

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.