Iguala (ēgwä´lə) or Iguala de la Independencia (ēgwä´lə ŧħā lä ēn´dāpĕndĕn´syä), city (1990 pop. 83,412), Guerrero state, S Mexico, on the Cocula River. It is the communications, distribution, and processing center of the surrounding mining and agricultural region. There are frequent earthquakes. The city is famous historically as the place where Agustín de Iturbide, with the acquiescence of the guerrilla leader Vicente Guerrero, proclaimed the Plan of Iguala on Feb. 24, 1821. The plan's Three Guarantees provided for Roman Catholicism as Mexico's sole religion (thus confirming clerical privileges), absolute independence from Spain (preferably under a constitutional monarchy headed by Ferdinand VII or another member of the reigning Spanish family), and racial equality (the right of any person to hold office). The plan was discarded when Iturbide made himself emperor.
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