Skip to main content

Cortina, Juan Nepomuceno

Juan Nepomuceno Cortina, 1824–94, Mexican military leader and politician. Born into a wealthy cattle-ranching family that moved to the Rio Grande Valley, Cortina joined the Mexican army in 1846 and formed an irregular cavalry regiment that fought against the United States in the Mexican War. After the war, his family's lands were divided between the two countries. Cortina became active in Texas politics and formed a militia that thwarted the eviction of poor Mexican-Americans from their lands. In 1859, following a confrontation with the Brownsville marshal, Cortina and his forces took over the town for two months, then fought Texas forces until he was driven into Mexico in 1860. In 1861, as the Civil War began, Cortina invaded Zapata co., Tex., but was quickly defeated and retreated into Mexico. In 1862 he fought alongside Benito Juárez against French intervention in Mexico, becoming (1863) a general in the Mexican army and serving (1864–66) as interim governor of Tamaulipas state. He returned to his estate in Matamoros (1870), but President Díaz) had him arrested (1876) on charges of cattle rustling. He was imprisoned until 1890, when he was released into internal exile near Mexico City.

See biographies by C. Goldfinch and J. Canales (1974) and J. Thompson (2013).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Cortina, Juan Nepomuceno." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 23 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Cortina, Juan Nepomuceno." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (April 23, 2019).

"Cortina, Juan Nepomuceno." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 23, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.