Skip to main content


Chahar (chä-här), former province (109,527 sq mi/283,675 sq km), N China. Zhangjiakou (Kalgan) was the capital. It was abolished as a province in 1952; most of it was incorporated in the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, and the rest was divided between Shanxi and Hebei provs. The southern tip of the region, economically the most important, includes the eastern terminus of the main road to the Republic of Mongolia and is well connected by rail. Kaoliang, wheat, and corn are raised in its fertile loess soil. The rest of the region, mainly inhabited by Mongolian herders, is a high, almost barren plateau, where livestock raising and animal trapping are the chief economic activities; horses, hides, fur, and wool are exported.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Chahar." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 20 Aug. 2019 <>.

"Chahar." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (August 20, 2019).

"Chahar." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 20, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.