Skip to main content


Cap-Haïtien (käp-äēsyăN´), city (1995 est. pop. 100,600), N Haiti, on the Atlantic Ocean. Haiti's second largest city, it is a seaport, commercial center, and tourist attraction. Agriculture dominates the regional economy, with sisal, sugar, coffee, cacao, bananas, and pineapples as the major commercial crops. Founded by the French in 1670, the city was the capital of colonial Haiti for a century. In 1791, Cap-Haïtien was captured by Toussaint L'Ouverture, leader of a slave rebellion. From 1811 to 1820 it served as capital of the kingdom of Henri Christophe, whose Sans Souci Palace and famous citadel, La Ferrière, still stand. Despite earthquakes (notably in 1842), bombings, and civil strife, Cap-Haïtien retains some picturesque colonial charm. It is also known as Le Cap.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Cap-Haïtien." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 18 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Cap-Haïtien." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (April 18, 2019).

"Cap-Haïtien." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 18, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.