Abd al-Hamid I
Abd al-Hamid I (äb´däl-hämēd´) or Abdülhamit (Turk. äbdül´hämēd´), 1725–89, Ottoman sultan (1774–89), brother and successor of Mustafa III. His reign, one of decline for the Ottoman Empire (Turkey), saw the end of the war of 1768–74 and the beginning of the war of 1787–91 with Catherine II of Russia (see Russo-Turkish Wars). The peace terms in 1774 (see Kuchuk Kainarji, Treaty of) established Russia as the foremost power in the Middle East and had incalculable effects. In 1775, Austria, jealous of Russian expansion, forced the Turks to cede Bukovina. Abd al-Hamid was succeeded by his nephew, Selim III.
"Abd al-Hamid I." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 18, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/abd-al-hamid-i
"Abd al-Hamid I." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved January 18, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/abd-al-hamid-i
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.