[Since the mid-1960s, the marine mollusk Aplysia has proved to be an extremely useful model system for gaining insights into the neural and molecular mechanisms of simple forms of memory. Indeed, the pioneering discoveries of Eric Kandel using this animal were recognized by his receipt of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 2000. A number of characteristics make Aplysia well suited to the examination of the molecular, cellular, morphological, and network mechanisms underlying neuronal modifications (plasticity) and learning and memory. The animal has a relatively simple nervous system with large, individually identifiable neurons that are accessible for detailed anatomical, biophysical, biochemical, and molecular studies. Neurons and neural circuits that mediate many behaviors in Aplysia have been identified. In several cases, these behaviors have been shown to be modified by learning. Moreover, specific loci within neural circuits where modifications occur during learning have been identified, and aspects of the cellular mechanisms underlying these modifications have been analyzed. The three entries that follow review several aspects of research on Aplysia.C lassicalC onditioning andO perantC onditioningdescribes several of the behaviors of Aplysia that exhibit these associative forms of learning and the progress that has been made in examining the underlying mechanisms.M olecularB asis ofL ong-T ermS ensitizationdescribes the elucidation of second-messenger cascades and the roles of specific genes and proteins in the induction and maintenance of this example of nonassociative learning.D evelopment ofP rocessesU nderlyingL earningdescribes the ways in which it has been possible to identify and dissociate multiple components of nonassociative learning on both behavioral and cellular levels. For entries on other invertebrates that have proved useful for examining mechanisms of learning and memory, see INSECT LEARNING, INVERTEBRATE LEARNING, and MORPHOLOGICAL BASIS OF LEARNING AND MEMORY: INVERTEBRATES.]
"Aplysia." Learning and Memory. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 15, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/psychology/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/aplysia
"Aplysia." Learning and Memory. . Retrieved August 15, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/psychology/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/aplysia
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.