Meynert, Theodor (1833-1892)
MEYNERT, THEODOR (1833-1892)
Theodor Meynert, an Austrian psychiatrist, was born in Dresden in 1833 and died at Klosterneuburg, near Vienna, in 1892.
His father was a writer and his mother a singer at the court opera. Meynert, a "curious mixture of artist and naturalist," became a doctor of medicine in 1861 and in 1865 he presented a thesis that authorized him to teach in third level education: Bau une Leistungen des Gehirns und Rückenmarks mit Beziehung zu deren Erkrankungen (Structure and activity of the brain and spinal cord in relation to their pathology). In 1868 his authorization was extended to include psychiatry. An experienced dissector, he was appointed director of a psychiatric hospital in Lower Austria in 1870. By 1873 he occupied a chair of psychiatry and in 1875 he became the director of the psychiatric clinic attached to the University of Vienna.
Meynert's scientific contributions are related to his work on the pathology of the brain, such as mapping the topography of the sensory and motor pathways and identifying the nerve endings in the cerebral motor cortex and the linking pathways of the cerebellum, as well as functional antagonisms that are important for the history of the evolution between the cerebral cortex and the rest of the brain. Meynert is recognized as the founder of the cytoarchitectonics of the cerebral cortex. He devoted himself to establishing psychiatry as an exact science based on anatomy. He formulated the antagonism between the cortex and the sub-cortical zones as being the key to the abnormal function of cerebral mechanisms in mental illness. He left his mark on theories concerning the causal links between cerebral pathologies and psychoses as a result of deficits in cerebral nutrition related to vasomotri-city. His article "Amentia" (1890/1983) describes and demonstrates the interaction between organic and psychological factors.
In July 1882, when he entered the general hospital of Vienna as an intern, Freud had already abandoned his career as a researcher with Brücke for financial reasons. Having worked as an assistant physician in Meynert's clinic from May 1 to September 31, 1883, he continued his laboratory research into the anatomy of the brain for another eighteen months. However, his initial high esteem for Meynert was transformed into a critical distance with regard to the "idol Meynert enthroned in the heavens." Meynert later distanced himself from Freud because of the latter's interest and experience with Charcot's ideas in Paris and his therapeutic involvement with hypnotism.
See also: Absence; "Autobiographical Study, An"; Freud, the Secret Passion; Kantianism and psychoanalysis; Metapsychological Supplement to the Theory of Dreams ; Vienna General Hospital.
Freud, Sigmund. (1960b ). Curriculum vitae. In J. Gicklhorn and R. Gicklhorn, Sigmund Freuds akademische Laufbahn im Lichte der Dokumente. Vienna: Urvan & Schwarzenberg.
Hirschmüller, Albrecht. (1991). Freuds Begegnung mit der Psychiatrie. Tübingen: Diskord.
Lesky, Erna. (1976). The Vienna Medical School of the 19th Century (L. Williams and I. S. Levij, Trans.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. (Original work published in 1965)
Meynert, Theodor. (1983). L'Amentia, ou confusion. C. Levy-Friesacher (Ed.), Meynert-Freud "L'amentia". Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. (Original work published 1890)
Pappenheim, Else. (1975). On Meynert's Amentia. History of Medicine, 9, 3-4.
"Meynert, Theodor (1833-1892)." International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 18, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/psychology/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/meynert-theodor-1833-1892
"Meynert, Theodor (1833-1892)." International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. . Retrieved December 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/psychology/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/meynert-theodor-1833-1892
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.