Skip to main content

Ottomans

OTTOMANS

Turkish dynasty created by Osman (Othman) the First. From the fourteenth to the sixteenth century, the Ottomans created a vast empire in western Asia, eastern Europe, and north Africa. In 1453 their troops took Constantinople, ending the reign of the Byzantine Christian empire. They controlled Palestine for four hundred years beginning in 1516.

Under Ottoman rule Palestine was divided into three mutasarrifiyahs: Nablus and Acre, linked with Beirut, and Jerusalem, which dealt directly with the Ottoman government in Istanbul. Within the Ottoman Empire non-Muslim religious communities were organized into units called millets, each of which collected its own taxes, established its own educational institutions, and administered its own laws relating to personal affairs; thus Jews and Christian sects had full religious freedom during this period. In 1831 the Egyptian viceroy Muhammad Ali Pasha and his son Ibrahim invaded Palestine, establishing a harsh regime while opening the area to Christian and other Western influences. In 1840, however, the British, Austrians, and Russians forced the Egyptians out and Palestine was restored to the Ottoman Empire, which adopted widespread reforms and encouraged foreign colonies. Among these were a few Zionist agricultural settlements, the earliest of which was established by Russian Jews in 1882.

Ottoman control over Palestine ended in 1917–1918, with the arrival of British troops during World War I, and officially ceased in 1922, when the Ottoman Empire, which had been allied with Germany, was formally dismantled. At that time the modern nation of Turkey was created and Palestine came under British Mandate.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Ottomans." Dictionary of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Jun. 2019 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Ottomans." Dictionary of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 20, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/politics/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ottomans

"Ottomans." Dictionary of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. . Retrieved June 20, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/politics/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ottomans

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.