International Islamic Front
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC FRONT
Loose coalition of radical Islamic groups created in August 1990 in Saudi Arabia and led by Osama Bin Ladin. Among the member organizations of this front were the Egyptian Islamic Jihad and al-Jamiʿa al-Islamiyya, the Jordanian Army of Muhammad, the Kashmiri Harkut al-Ansar (Partisans' Movement), and the Saudi Muhajirun (Exiles, Migrants). (This last was founded by Shaykh Omar bin Bakri Muhammad, who later established himself in London.)
In February 1998, Osama Bin Ladin issued a public statement calling for attacks on all Americans and announced the creation of a new World Islamic Front for Holy War against Jews and Crusaders. This umbrella organization included among its members the Egyptian Islamic Jihad and al-Jamiʿa al-Islamiyya, the Kashmiri Harkut al-Ansar, the Pakistani Jamiat ul-Ulema (Scholars' Group), and the Bangladeshi Islamic Jihad. The Islamic Army for the Liberation of the Holy Places, which claimed credit for the simultaneous attacks of 7 August 1998 against the American embassies in Nairobi and Dar es-Salaam, is understood to be this same group, also known as al-Qaʿida ("the Base").