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ORANGE

ORANGE , previously a principality and later a town in Vaucluse department, S.E. France. The earliest evidence of the presence of Jews in Orange dates from 1282 and in the locality of Courthézon from 1328, at the latest. In 1353 Raymond v, prince of Orange, granted the Jews of his principality a charter which in effect constituted a series of privileges which were remarkable, indeed almost exceptional, for the 14th century. Even before Raymond's time, however, some precedent had been set in this direction by other princes of Orange, who had, for example, already employed Jews as toll collectors. Because of these favorable conditions, a constant stream of Jews came from *Comtat Venaissin to Orange, among them the physician Durand de Cavaillon who arrived there in 1387. This situation lasted until the latter half of the 15th century. In 1477 the municipal council sought to remove Jews from the grain trade in which they were engaged in addition to moneylending (Jews frequently acted as brokers for the wealthy burghers of Orange or for Italian financiers). When the council demanded the expulsion of the Jews in 1484, the prince of Orange refused unless the town could indemnify him for the taxes that would be lost by such an action. Jewish houses were openly attacked in 1490 and the expulsion was carried out in 1505.

On several occasions during the first half of the 17th century the parliament of Orange renewed the expulsion decree. Despite this, by 1643 several Jewish families had "clandestinely" resettled in Orange. Their numbers slowly increased, until by 1731 there were 21 families (16 in Orange, 4 in Courthézon, 1 in Jonquières). The new expulsion orders were only partially applied, and from 1774 on there was a massive influx of Jews from Comtat Venaissin. With the onset of the French Revolution, however, the departure of the Jews was almost as rapid. Using their newly acquired liberties, they left Orange for more important towns. In 1808 only 36 Jews remained in Orange and almost all of them bore the name Mossé. The Jewish community rapidly dissolved and was never reconstituted.

Several eminent scholars, particularly *Levi b. Gershom, lived in Orange for varying lengths of time. Another such scholar was Mordecai, also named En Crescas, or Ezobi, of Orange, who settled in Carcassonne toward the close of the 13th century. The surname Ezobi, borne by a large number of other scholars, points to a more or less distant origin in Orange. An anonymous scholar and translator of the late 12th century and one Gershon b. Hezekiah, author of medical books in the first half of the 15th century, are intimately connected with the town of Orange.

bibliography:

Gross, Gal Jud, 18ff.; I. Loeb, in: rej, 1 (1880), 72ff.; J. Bauer, ibid., 32 (1896), 236ff.; D. Wolfson, ibid., 57 (1909), 93ff.; H. Chabaut, ibid., 100 (1936), 62ff.; L. Barthélemy, Inventaire… Maison de Baux (1882), index.

[Bernhard Blumenkranz]

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or·ange / ˈôrənj; ˈär-/ • n. 1. a round juicy citrus fruit with a tough bright reddish-yellow rind. ∎  a drink made from or flavored with orange: a vodka and orange. 2. (also orange tree) the leathery-leaved evergreen tree that bears this fruit, native to warm regions of south and Southeast Asia. Oranges are a major commercial crop in many warm regions of the world. • Genus Citrus, family Rutaceae: several species, in particular the sweet orange (C. sinensis) and the Seville orange. ∎  used in names of other plants with similar fruit or flowers, e.g., mock orange. 3. a bright reddish-yellow color like that of the skin of a ripe orange. • adj. 1. reddish yellow, like a ripe orange in color: an orange glow in the sky. 2. made from or flavored with oranges, or having an orangelike flavoring. DERIVATIVES: or·ang·ey (also or·ang·y) adj. or·ang·ish (also or·ange·ish) adj.

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orange orange blossom flowers from an orange tree, traditionally worn by the bride at a wedding; orange blossom may thus be taken as a symbol of marriage. The custom appears to have been introduced to Britain in the 1820s from France, where it was said to be customary for a bride to wear a crown of orange buds and blossoms.
Orange Revolution a protest campaign, including mass demonstrations, which followed the disputed results of the Ukrainian presidential election in November 2004. (A rerun of the election, held in December, reversed the result, giving the decision to the opposition leader, Viktor Yuschenko). Orange was the official colour of the opposition coalition.
oranges and lemons a children's game in which players pass under an arch formed by the joined upraised hands of two of the participants while a song beginning with the words, ‘Oranges and Lemons, say the bells of St Clements’ is chanted. (The subsequent rhymes refer to churches near or within the City of London.)

See also apples and oranges, all Lombard Street to a China orange.

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Orange Longest river of South Africa. It rises in the Drakensberg Mountains in n Lesotho and flows generally w, forming the boundary between Free State and Cape Province. It continues w through the Kalahari and Namib deserts, forming South Africa's border with Namibia. It empties into the Atlantic Ocean at Oranjemund. Length: c.1300mi (2100km).

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Orange name of a town (Arausio in the ancient province of Gallia Narbonensis) on the Rhône in France, which in 1530 passed to the house of Nassau and so to the ancestors of William III of England (‘William of O.’, i.e. O.-Nassau), after whom were named (late XVIII) the O. lodges, Orangemen, and O. boys of an ultra-Protestant party in Ireland formally constituted into a secret society in 1795. The coincidence of this name with that of the fruit made the wearing of orange-coloured badges a symbol of attachment to William III and of membership of the O. Society.

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orange Citrus fruit, from the subtropical tree Citrus sinensis. Of nutritional value mainly because of its vitamin C content of 40–60 mg/ 100 g. Blood oranges are coloured by the presence of anthocyanins in the juice vesicles. One medium orange (160 g) is a rich source of vitamin C; a good source of folate; a source of vitamins A (as carotene) and B1; contains 3.2 g of dietary fibre; supplies 60 kcal (250 kJ).

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orange Evergreen citrus tree and its fruit. There are two basic types. The sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is native to Asia and widely grown in the USA and Israel. The fruit develops without flower pollination and is often seedless. The sour orange (C. aurantium) is widely grown in Spain for the manufacture of marmalade. Related fruits include the mandarin, tangerine, and satsuma – all varieties of C. reticulata. Height: to 9m (30ft). Family Rutaceae; genus Citrus.

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orangeFalange, flange •avenge, henge, revenge, Stonehenge •arrange, change, counterchange, estrange, exchange, grange, interchange, Lagrange, mange, part-exchange, range, short-change, strange •binge, cringe, fringe, hinge, impinge, singe, springe, swinge, syringe, tinge, twinge, whinge •challenge • orange • scavenge •lozenge • blancmange •lounge, scrounge •blunge, expunge, grunge, gunge, lunge, plunge, scunge, sponge

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orange (fruit of) an evergreen tree, Citrus aurantium XIV (orenge). — OF. orenge in pomme d'orenge, later and mod. orange; ult. — Arab. nāranj — Pers. nārang.
So orangeade XVIII.

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