orange (in botany)
orange, name for a tree of the family Rutaceae (rue, or orange, family), native to China and Indochina, and for its fruit, the most important fresh fruit of international commerce. Its physical characteristics (especially the rich citric acid and vitamin content of the fruit) and history of cultivation are similar to those of the other types of citrus fruits, all of which are species of Citrus.
Among the commercially important species of oranges are the sweet, or common, orange (C. sinensis), which furnishes most of the varieties for commercial growing, including the Baiá, or Washington, navel (a winter orange), and the Valencia (a summer orange); the sour, or Seville, orange (C. aurantium), which is grown in the United States chiefly as understock on which to bud sweet orange varieties, although in Europe its fruit is much used in marmalade; the mandarin (C. reticulata or nobilis), or the "kid glove," or loose-rind, group of oranges, which includes the Satsuma varieties, known for their hardiness, tangerines, and clementines. Oranges hybridize freely. The Temple orange is a cross between a mandarin and a sweet orange; the citrange a cross between the inedible trifoliate orange (C. trifoliata) and a sweet orange; and the tangelo is produced by crossing a tangerine and a grapefruit.
Columbus brought the orange to the West Indies, and it is known that orange trees were well established in Florida before 1565 and were growing in California by 1800. The orange now grows in the warm parts of all continents. Flowers and fruits in all stages of development are on the tree throughout the year, although a large portion of the fruits ripen at one time. The orange is attacked by many insects and fungus diseases and is quite sensitive to frost. If the fruits are picked when still "green" (though fully mature), they must undergo a bleaching or degreening process to bring out the orange or yellow color in their rinds. Some oranges are artificially colored and waxed before marketing.
Most oranges, like other citrus fruits, are consumed fresh or made into juice. The fruit and rind are also much used in marmalade, preserves, flavoring, and confections. Some varieties yield essential oils used in perfume. The flower is a favorite for bridal decoration and is the state flower of Florida. The yellow wood, which is hard and close-grained, is manufactured into small articles.
Orange is classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Sapindales, family Rutaceae.
ORANGE , previously a principality and later a town in Vaucluse department, S.E. France. The earliest evidence of the presence of Jews in Orange dates from 1282 and in the locality of Courthézon from 1328, at the latest. In 1353 Raymond v, prince of Orange, granted the Jews of his principality a charter which in effect constituted a series of privileges which were remarkable, indeed almost exceptional, for the 14th century. Even before Raymond's time, however, some precedent had been set in this direction by other princes of Orange, who had, for example, already employed Jews as toll collectors. Because of these favorable conditions, a constant stream of Jews came from *Comtat Venaissin to Orange, among them the physician Durand de Cavaillon who arrived there in 1387. This situation lasted until the latter half of the 15th century. In 1477 the municipal council sought to remove Jews from the grain trade in which they were engaged in addition to moneylending (Jews frequently acted as brokers for the wealthy burghers of Orange or for Italian financiers). When the council demanded the expulsion of the Jews in 1484, the prince of Orange refused unless the town could indemnify him for the taxes that would be lost by such an action. Jewish houses were openly attacked in 1490 and the expulsion was carried out in 1505.
On several occasions during the first half of the 17th century the parliament of Orange renewed the expulsion decree. Despite this, by 1643 several Jewish families had "clandestinely" resettled in Orange. Their numbers slowly increased, until by 1731 there were 21 families (16 in Orange, 4 in Courthézon, 1 in Jonquières). The new expulsion orders were only partially applied, and from 1774 on there was a massive influx of Jews from Comtat Venaissin. With the onset of the French Revolution, however, the departure of the Jews was almost as rapid. Using their newly acquired liberties, they left Orange for more important towns. In 1808 only 36 Jews remained in Orange and almost all of them bore the name Mossé. The Jewish community rapidly dissolved and was never reconstituted.
Several eminent scholars, particularly *Levi b. Gershom, lived in Orange for varying lengths of time. Another such scholar was Mordecai, also named En Crescas, or Ezobi, of Orange, who settled in Carcassonne toward the close of the 13th century. The surname Ezobi, borne by a large number of other scholars, points to a more or less distant origin in Orange. An anonymous scholar and translator of the late 12th century and one Gershon b. Hezekiah, author of medical books in the first half of the 15th century, are intimately connected with the town of Orange.
Gross, Gal Jud, 18ff.; I. Loeb, in: rej, 1 (1880), 72ff.; J. Bauer, ibid., 32 (1896), 236ff.; D. Wolfson, ibid., 57 (1909), 93ff.; H. Chabaut, ibid., 100 (1936), 62ff.; L. Barthélemy, Inventaire… Maison de Baux (1882), index.
or·ange / ˈôrənj; ˈär-/ • n. 1. a round juicy citrus fruit with a tough bright reddish-yellow rind. ∎ a drink made from or flavored with orange: a vodka and orange. 2. (also orange tree) the leathery-leaved evergreen tree that bears this fruit, native to warm regions of south and Southeast Asia. Oranges are a major commercial crop in many warm regions of the world. • Genus Citrus, family Rutaceae: several species, in particular the sweet orange (C. sinensis) and the Seville orange. ∎ used in names of other plants with similar fruit or flowers, e.g., mock orange. 3. a bright reddish-yellow color like that of the skin of a ripe orange. • adj. 1. reddish yellow, like a ripe orange in color: an orange glow in the sky. 2. made from or flavored with oranges, or having an orangelike flavoring. DERIVATIVES: or·ang·ey (also or·ang·y) adj. or·ang·ish (also or·ange·ish) adj.
Orange (cities, United States)
Orange:1 City (1990 pop. 110,658), Orange co., S Calif.; inc. 1888. Citrus fruits and nuts are packed, processed, and shipped; rubber and plastic products, electronic components, aircraft parts, and industrial furnaces are manufactured. The city grew rapidly in the late 20th cent. Founded as Richland, the city was renamed in 1875. Chapman Univ. is there.
2 Town (1990 pop. 12,830), New Haven co., SW Conn., a residential suburb of New Haven, on the Housatonic; settled 1720, set off from Milford 1822, inc. 1921. It is a major retail center; manufactures include metal products, furniture, electronic and transportation equipment, and foods. The town's first house (1720) still stands.
3 City (1990 pop. 29,925), Essex co., NE N.J.; settled c.1675, set off from Newark 1806, inc. as a city 1872. Orange and the surrounding municipalities of East Orange, West Orange, South Orange, and Maplewood are known as "The Oranges," a single suburb of Newark and New York City. Although chiefly residential, Orange has some manufacturing.
4 City (1990 pop. 19,381), seat of Orange co., SE Tex., a deepwater port on the Sabine River at its junction with the Intracoastal Waterway; settled c.1800, inc. 1858. It is a port of entry, with shipyards, oil and gas wells, and major petrochemical plants. Steel, rubber and paper products, and plastics are manufactured. Cattle, hogs, honey, and wine are also produced. The U.S. navy has a mothballed fleet there.
Orange Revolution a protest campaign, including mass demonstrations, which followed the disputed results of the Ukrainian presidential election in November 2004. (A rerun of the election, held in December, reversed the result, giving the decision to the opposition leader, Viktor Yuschenko). Orange was the official colour of the opposition coalition.
oranges and lemons a children's game in which players pass under an arch formed by the joined upraised hands of two of the participants while a song beginning with the words, ‘Oranges and Lemons, say the bells of St Clements’ is chanted. (The subsequent rhymes refer to churches near or within the City of London.)
See also apples and oranges, all Lombard Street to a China orange.