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Garlic

Garlic

Description

Garlic (Allium sativa ), is a plant with long, flat grasslike leaves and a papery hood around the flowers. The greenish white or pink flowers are found grouped together at the end of a long stalk. The stalk rises directly from the flower bulb, which is the part of the plant used as food and medicine. The bulb is made up of many smaller bulbs covered with a papery skin known as cloves. Although garlic is known as the "stinking rose" it is actually a member of the lily family.

The most active components of fresh garlic are an amino acid called alliin and an enzyme called allinase. When a clove of garlic is chewed, chopped, bruised, or cut, these compounds mix to form allicin, which is responsible for garlic's strong smell. Allicin, in turn, breaks down into other sulfur compounds within a few hours. These compounds have a variety of overlapping healing properties.

Garlic also contains a wide range of trace minerals. These include copper, iron, zinc, magnesium , germanium, and selenium . The integrity of the growers and suppliers of garlic are important to the integrity of the garlic used. A soil rich with the presence of trace minerals will produce a healthful bulb of garlic, full of those minerals. Depleted soils produce a depleted product. In addition, garlic contains many sulfur compounds, vitamins A and C, and various amino acids .

General use

The ancient Indians, Chinese, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and other peoples have used garlic for thousands of years, as food and as medicine. One of the most famed usages of garlic was during the Middle Ages, when it was reputed to have been highly effective against the plague.

As early as 1858, Louis Pasteur formally studied and recorded garlic's antibiotic properties. Dr. Albert Schweitzer used the herb to successfully treat cholera,

typhus, and dysentery in Africa in the 1950s. Before antibiotics were widely available, garlic was used as a treatment for battle wounds during both World Wars.

Garlic can be used in the treatment of a variety of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections . It has been shown to be effective against staph, strep, E. coli, Salmonella, Vibrio cholera, H. pylori, Candida albicans, and other microorganisms. Garlic also helps prevent against heart disease and strokes. Current studies show that garlic can improve immune function and may even help in the prevention of cancer . To be of benefit in chronic conditions, garlic should be used daily over an extended period of time.

Heart disease

One of the main causes of heart disease is the buildup of plaque on the walls of the blood vessels. This plaque is mostly made up of cholesterol and other fatty substances found in the blood. When large amounts of plaque get stuck on artery walls, they block the flow of blood and cause blood clots to form. Parts of the artery wall may even be destroyed completely.

In arteriosclerosis, otherwise known as "hardening of the arteries," the major arteries may become so stiff and clogged, that the heart cannot get necessary nutrients and oxygen. This usually causes a heart attack . High serum cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for having a heart attack.

Studies show that people who eat garlic regularly have improved serum cholesterol levels. Some people with high cholesterol have been able to get within normal levels by eating 12 cloves per day. In addition, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride levels are decreased and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels are increased. This correlates with an overall reduced cholesterol level. These benefits are significant in preventing heart disease as well as strokes. While garlic's contribution to reducing levels of harmful plaques has been known for some time, a 2003 study found that garlic also lowered levels of homocysteine, a type of amino acid that is now considered a major risk factor for heart attacks. Manufactured garlic supplements appear to be equally as beneficial as eating the fresh cloves. It takes at least one month of using garlic for laboratory results to be seen.

Hypertension

Hypertension , or high blood pressure, is also a significant cause of heart problems. It is one of the leading causes of disability and death due to stroke , heart attack, heart failure, and kidney failure. Garlic can help reduce blood pressure through the actions of its sulfur compounds and its ability to reduce the fatty substances, such as cholesterol, found in the bloodstream. Use of garlic also can help normalize low blood pressure.

Platelet aggregation

Platelets clot the blood in order to repair breaks in the blood vessel walls. When there is an injury, platelets are attracted to the damaged area and become attached to the wall and to other platelets. Platelet aggregation, as this process is called, plugs up the break and prevents further blood loss while the injury is being repaired. This is a good and necessary part of healing an injury.

However, if there are serious problems with the heart and blood vessels and there is too much injury and clotting, the vessels may become clogged with platelets. This can lead to strokes and heart disease. The sulfur compounds in garlicparticularly ajoenegive the platelets a slippery quality. They are less able to clump together, thus slowing down platelet aggregation. Garlic can be used effectively in the same way as a daily dose of aspirin to reduce or prevent platelet aggregation over an extended time.

Cancer

Studies have found that garlic blocks the formation of powerful carcinogens, called nitrosamines, which may be formed during the digestion of food. This may be why in populations where people consume a large amount of garlic, there is a decreased incidence of all types of cancer. The antioxidants found in garlic may also contribute to this effect by protecting against the cell damage by cancer-causing free radicals. Studies show that use of garlic may also inhibit the growth of a variety of tumors. However, cancer-related studies are not conclusive and relate to consumption of raw or cooked garlic, not garlic supplements.

Infectious conditions

Eating garlic is good for helping the body's immune system resist infections . While garlic is not as strong as modern antibiotics, it is believed to kill some strains of bacteria that have become resistant to antibiotics. Studies have shown garlic treats yeast infections, and it can kill many of the viruses responsible for colds and flu. While daily consumption of garlic was once highly recommended for HIV-positive individuals, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) reported in 2002 that garlic supplements greatly reduced levels of saquinavir, an HIV protease inhibitor, in patients' blood. The NIH began cautioning patients who used garlic to control cholesterol levels who also used saquinavir or combination therapies, since garlic might interfere with their effectiveness.

Modern doctors have been reconsidering the causes of many diseases. They have discovered that bacteria and viruses may be the cause of sicknesses that were formerly not thought to be caused by infections. This includes gastric ulcers, colitis, and Kaposi's sarcoma . Garlic may be useful in treating or preventing these due to its antimicrobial properties.

Diabetes

Garlic has the ability to lower and help keep blood sugar stable by helping to increase the amount of insulin available in the bloodstream. This action, together with garlic's ability to lower cholesterol and blood pressure, make it an excellent daily supplement for people with diabetes. A 2003 report showed that long-term use of garlic helped improve the blood vessel systems of diabetic rats.

Other health conditions

Garlic is effective in the treatment of numerous other conditions. For example:

  • The consumption of 13 cloves per day is useful for immune support and as a preventive against diseases and infection.
  • Warmed garlic oil in the ear canal can be used to treat ear infections.
  • Garlic can be used to treat respiratory complaints such as asthma and chronic bronchitis .
  • Garlic helps increase the body's ability to handle the digestion of meat and fats.
  • Garlic can be used to help kill and expel intestinal worms in both animals and humans.
  • When added to a pet's food, garlic helps repel fleas.
  • Garlic is helpful in getting rid of athlete's foot.
  • Garlic relieves gas and other stomach complaints.
  • The sulfur compounds found in garlic can bind to heavy metals and other toxins and help remove them from the body.
  • Garlic can be used externally for cuts, wounds, and skin eruptions.
  • The taste of garlic in mother's milk stimulates improved nursing. Infants eat more and nurse longer. They appear to relish the taste of slightly garlicky milk. The components of garlic that reach the infant through the mother's milk also may be helpful in relieving colic and infections.

Preparations

Used internally

Garlic can be eaten raw or cooked, taken as tablets or capsules, and used as a tincture or syrup. The raw cloves can be directly applied externally.

The suggested dosage for fresh whole garlic is one to three cloves per day. The cloves can be chewed and held in the mouth or swallowed. Consuming raw garlic can actually be a pleasure if the herb is crushed or grated and mixed with food or a tablespoon of honey. The dosage for tinctures is 24 ml or 1540 drops taken twice daily. One tablespoon of the syrup should be taken three times a day, or as needed to relieve coughing. Garlic oil should be slightly warmed, and 13 drops should be put in the affected ear 13 times per day.

Tablets and capsules are often more convenient to use than raw garlic, and they are more likely to be tolerated by garlic-sensitive individuals. Garlic pills also minimize the garlic taste and odor. Manufacturers vary on which components of the herb are emphasized.

In general, the following dosages are appropriate, but product labels also should be consulted:

  • 400500 mg of allicin, twice daily
  • a dose equaling approximately 4,000 mcg of allicin potential, once or twice daily
  • 4001,200 mg of dried garlic powder
  • 1,0007,200 mg of aged garlic
  • a dose equivalent to 0.030.12 ml of garlic oil, three times per day

Manufactured garlic pills come in a variety of forms, and a great deal of controversy continues about what type is best. Studying the manufacturers' literature and other information is important to make a good decision about which preparation to use. The types of garlic preparations include:

  • garlic oil capsules
  • encapsulated powdered garlic
  • odorless garlic pills
  • allicin-stabilized pills
  • aged garlic extract

Used externally

A poultice can be made using grated or crushed fresh garlic. The herb material should be placed directly on the site of injury or eruption, either "as is" or mixed with enough honey to make a paste. The poultice can be held in place with a cloth or bandage.

A compress of garlic is less messy than a poultice and may be less irritating to the site of the injury. It is made by wrapping grated or crushed fresh garlic in a single piece of cheesecloth. As with the poultice, the compress is placed directly on the affected area.

Garlic oil can be made by putting a whole bulb of grated or finely chopped garlic into a pint jar of olive oil, and letting it sit undisturbed in a warm place, away from direct sunlight, for at least two weeks. Then it can be strained and refrigerated. The garlic oil will stay fresh in the refrigerator for up to two years.

A garlic suppository can be used to treat vaginal yeast or mild bacterial infections. A clove of fresh garlic should be peeled and slightly crushed or bruised. If crushed garlic irritates the vaginal tissue, an alternative that might lessen the desired antimicrobial effect is to use the whole, uncrushed garlic clove. The clove should be wrapped in a single layer of cheesecloth and inserted into the vaginal canal overnight for 5-10 days. Dental floss or a length of the cheesecloth can be used to make the suppository easier to retrieve. If the garlic causes a burning sensation, this can be eased with the insertion of plain yogurt into the vagina.

Precautions

Consumers will find a wide variety of garlic preparations on the market. Therefore, it is important to study manufacturers' claims, talk to knowledgeable practitioners, and find out which formulations are most effective for a given condition.

Due to the high concentration of sulfur compounds in garlic, it should be avoided by those allergic to sulfur. Garlic inhibits clotting, thereby causing increased bleeding times. Hemophiliacs and those on anticoagulant medication should consult a physician before taking garlic on a daily basis. This also applies to individuals who are preparing to undergo surgery. Medicinal use of garlic should be discontinued for at least 12 weeks before surgery. HIV patients receiving protease inhibitor or combination therapy should check with their physicians before using garlic supplements, as garlic may interfere with the therapy's effectiveness.

Side effects

Raw garlic can be very irritating to the digestive system. Excessive intake (usually, more than three or four cloves a day) can cause bloating, gas, cramping, diarrhea , and may even damage the red blood cells. When applied to the skin, garlic may cause itching , redness and swelling. Garlic that is cooked, aged, or made into pills is not nearly as harsh on the system. However, these forms may not be as suitable as raw garlic in treating some conditions, particularly infections.

Garlic travels through the lungs and the bloodstream, giving a pungent garlic odor to the breath, skin, and perspiration. The odor will be present for at least 418 hours, sometimes even when so-called odorless garlic pills are used.

KEY TERMS

Plaque
A buildup of fats, cholesterol, calcium, and fibrous tissue in the blood that tends to attach to and weaken artery walls.

Interactions

Garlic does well when combined with coltsfoot or lobelia for treating asthma and bronchitis. Although onion is not as potent as garlic, it has similar actions, and the two often are combined. Use of garlic is contraindicated in individuals using the anticoagulant drug warfarin or certain HIV therapies.

Resources

BOOKS

Green, James The Male Herbal. Freedom, CA: The Crossing Press, 1991.

Murray, N.D., Michael T. The Healing Power of Herbs: The Enlightened Person's Guide to the Wonders of Medicinal Plants. Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing, 1992, 1995.

Romm, Aviva Jill. Natural Healing for Babies and Children. Freedom, CA: The Crossing Press, 1996.

Weed, Susun. Menopausal Years: The Wise Woman Way, Alternative Approaches for Women. Woodstock, NY: Ash Tree Publishing, 2000.

PERIODICALS

Gangel, Elaine Kierl. "Garlic Supplements and HIV Medication." American Family Physician (March 15, 2002):1225.

"Garlic Attenuates Time-dependent Changes in Reactivity of Isolated Aorta." Cardiovascular Week (October 27, 2003):8.

Novick, Jeff. "Garlic and Cancer." Health Science 25, no. 1 (Winter 2002):6.

"UCLA Researchers Find Garlic Has Ability to Reduce Heart Disease Risk Factors." Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients (July 2003):22.

OTHER

"Garlic." Herb Directory by Name. http://www.holisticonline.com/w_holisticonline.htm

"Garlic." http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/g/garlic06.html

"Garlic and Cancer Prevention." http://www.mayohealth.org/mayo/askdiet/htm/new/qd000223.htm

"Garlic's Breath of Health." http://www.usaweekend.com/health/carper_archive/950402eat_smart_garlic.html

Patience Paradox

Teresa G. Odle

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Garlic

Garlic

A member of the lily family that has been used worldwide as a Garlic herb and medicine. It was cultivated throughout Europe, where it was believed that using it or even mentioning its name was a sure charm against witchcraft, the evil eye, and vampires. Newly built houses and the sterns of boats belonging to Greece and Turkey once had long bunches of garlic hanging from them as a preventive against the fatal envy of any ill-disposed person. In ancient Rome soldiers believed that eating garlic gave them courage in battle. In addition to its use as an amulet, garlic was also credited with medical virtue as an antiseptic, salve, and water purifier.

Garlic also appeared in the folklore of Mexico, South America, and China, where it emerged as an antivampire agent. It was also long believed to have aphrodisiac properties and was forbidden in the diet of yogis in higher spiritual development in ancient India.

Sources:

Lehrer, Ernst, and Johanna Ernst. Folklore and Odysseys of Food and Medicinal Plants. New York: Tutor Publishing, 1962.

Melton, J. Gordon. The Vampire Book: An Encyclopedia of the Undead. Detroit: Visible Ink Press, 1994.

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garlic

gar·lic / ˈgärlik/ • n. 1. a strong-smelling pungent-tasting bulb, used as a flavoring in cooking and in herbal medicine. 2. the plant (Allium sativum) of the lily family that produces this bulb. DERIVATIVES: gar·lick·y adj. ORIGIN: Old English gārlēac, from gār ‘spear’ + lēac ‘leek.’

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garlic

garlic traditionally a protection against evil, especially (perhaps since the publication of Bram Stoker's Dracula) vampires.

The name is recorded from Old English (in form gārlēac), from gār ‘spear (because the shape of a clove resembles the head of a spear) + lēac ‘leek’.

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garlic

garlic Bulbous herb native to s Europe and central Asia. It has onion-like foliage and a bulb made up of sections called cloves, which are used for flavouring. It is also claimed to have medicinal properties. Family Liliaceae; species Allium sativum.

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garlic

garlic The bulb of Allium sativum with a pungent odour when crushed, widely used to flavour foods. There is some evidence that garlic has a beneficial effect in lowering blood cholesterol.

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garlic

garlic OE. gārlēac, f. gār spear + lēa LEEK.

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garlic

garlic See ALLIUM and LILIACEAE.

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garlic

garlic: see onion.

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garlic

garlicbathypelagic, magic, tragic •neuralgic, nostalgic •lethargic, Tajik •Belgic •paraplegic, quadriplegic, strategic •dialogic, ethnologic, hydrologic, isagogic, logic, monologic, mythologic, pathologic, pedagogic, teleologic •georgic • muzhik •allergic, dramaturgic •anarchic, heptarchic, hierarchic, monarchic, oligarchic •psychic • sidekick • dropkick •synecdochic • Turkic •Alec, cephalic, encephalic, Gallic, intervallic, italic, medallic, mesocephalic, metallic, phallic, Salic, tantalic, Uralic, Vandalic •catlick • garlic •angelic, archangelic, evangelic, melic, melick, philatelic, psychedelic, relic •Ehrlich • Gaelic •acrylic, bibliophilic, Cyrillic, dactylic, exilic, idyllic, imbecilic, necrophilic •niblick • skinflick •acyclic, cyclic, polycyclic •alcoholic, anabolic, apostolic, bucolic, carbolic, chocoholic, colic, diabolic, embolic, frolic, hydraulic, hyperbolic, melancholic, metabolic, parabolic, rollick, shambolic, shopaholic, symbolic, vitriolic, workaholic •saltlick • cowlick • souslik • gemütlich •public • Catholic

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Garlic

GARLIC

GARLIC (Heb. שׁוּם, shum), plant mentioned once in the Bible among the vegetables which the Israelites ate in Egypt and for which they longed when wandering in the wilderness (Num 11:5). Garlic (Allium sativum) is a condiment which was extremely popular among the peoples of the East from very early times. Herodotus states that an inscription on the pyramid of the pharaoh Cheops refers to the large sum spent on garlic as food for the men who worked on the pyramids. The ancients attributed to garlic aphrodisiac qualities (Pliny, Historia Naturalis, 20:23), and an enactment ascribed to Ezra decrees that it is to be eaten on Friday evenings since "it promotes love and arouses desire" (tj, Meg. 4:1, 75a). Because it was their custom to eat garlic, the Jews referred to themselves as "garlic eaters" (Ned. 3:10). The fastidious loathed the smell, and it is related of Judah ha-Nasi that he asked those who had eaten garlic to leave the bet midrash (Sanh. 11a). In this he may have been influenced by the Roman aristocracy's objections to garlic eating, the emperor Marcus Aurelius having criticized Jews for exuding its smell (Ammianus Marcellinus, Res gestae, 22:5). Garlic was regarded as a remedy for intestinal worms (BK 82a), a view also held by Dioscorides (De Materia Medica, 2:181). It belongs to the genus Allium, to which belong also the *onion and the *leek (ḥaẓir, to be distinguished from its usual sense of grass: *fodder), which are mentioned together with garlic in the Bible (Num. 11:5). Many species of the genus Allium grow wild in Israel, and are picked and eaten by the local population.

bibliography:

Loew, Flora, 2 (1924), 139–49; J. Feliks, Olam ha-Ẓome'aḥ ha-Mikra'i (19682), 172f. add bibliography: Feliks, Ha-Ẓome'aḥ, 156.

[Jehuda Feliks]

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Garlic

Garlic

Description

Garlic (Allium sativa) is a plant with long, flat grass-like leaves and a papery hood around the flowers. The greenish white or pink flowers are found grouped together at the end of a long stalk. The stalk rises directly from the flower bulb, which is the part of the plant used as food and medicine. The bulb is made up of many smaller bulbs covered with a papery skin known as cloves. Although garlic is known as the “stinking rose” it is actually a member of the lily family.

The most active components of fresh garlic are an amino acid called alliin and an enzyme called allinase. When a clove of garlic is chewed, chopped, bruised, or cut, these compounds mix to form allicin, which is responsible for garlic's strong smell. Allicin, in turn, breaks down into other sulfur compounds within a few hours. These compounds have a variety of overlapping healing properties.

Garlic also contains a wide range of trace minerals. These include copper, iron, zinc , magnesium, germanium, and selenium. The integrity of the growers and suppliers of garlic are important to the integrity of the garlic used. A soil rich with the presence of trace minerals will produce a healthful bulb of garlic, full of those minerals. Depleted soils produce a depleted product. In addition, garlic contains many sulfur compounds, vitamins A and C, and various amino acids.

General use

The ancient Indians, Chinese, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and other peoples have used garlic for thousands of years, both as food and as medicine. One of the most famed usages of garlic occurred during the Middle Ages, when garlic was reputed to have been highly effective against the plague.

As early as 1858, Louis Pasteur (1822–1895) formally studied and recorded garlic's antibiotic properties. Dr. Albert Schweitzer (1875–1965) used the herb to successfully treat cholera, typhus, and dysentery in Africa in the 1950s. Before antibiotics were widely available, garlic was used as a treatment for battle wounds during both World Wars.

Garlic can be used in the treatment of a variety of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections . It has been shown to be effective against staph, strep, E. coli, Salmonella, Vibrio cholera, H. pylori, Candida albicans, and other microorganisms. Garlic also helps prevent heart disease and strokes. Modern studies show that garlic can improve immune function and may even help in the prevention of cancer . To be of benefit in chronic conditions, garlic should be used daily over an extended period of time.

Heart disease

One of the main causes of heart disease is the buildup of plaque on the walls of the blood vessels. This plaque is mostly made up of cholesterol and other fatty substances found in the blood. When large amounts of plaque get stuck on artery walls, they block the flow of blood and cause blood clots to form. Parts of the artery wall may even be destroyed completely.

In arteriosclerosis, also known as hardening of the arteries, the major arteries may become so stiff and clogged, that the heart cannot get necessary nutrients and oxygen. This condition usually causes a heart attack . High serum cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for having a heart attack.

Studies show that people who eat garlic regularly have improved serum cholesterol levels. Some people with high cholesterol have been able to get within normal levels by eating 1–2 cloves per day. In addition, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride levels are decreased and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels are increased. This effect correlates with an overall reduced cholesterol level. These benefits are significant in preventing heart disease as well as strokes. While garlic's contribution to reducing levels of harmful plaques has been known for some time, a 2003 study found that garlic also lowered levels of homocysteine, a type of amino acid that in the early 2000s was considered a major risk factor for heart attacks. Manufactured garlic supplements appear to be equally as beneficial as eating fresh cloves. It takes at least one month of using garlic for laboratory results to be seen.

Hypertension

Hypertension , or high blood pressure , is also a significant cause of heart problems. It is one of the leading causes of disability and death due to stroke , heart attack, heart failure, and kidney failure. Garlic can help reduce blood pressure through the actions of its sulfur compounds and its ability to reduce the fatty substances, such as cholesterol, found in the bloodstream. Use of garlic also can help normalize low blood pressure.

Platelet aggregation

Platelets clot the blood in order to repair breaks in the blood vessel walls. When there is an injury, platelets are attracted to the damaged area and become attached to the wall and to other platelets. Platelet aggregation, as this process is called, plugs up the break and prevents further blood loss while the injury is being repaired. This is a good and necessary part of healing an injury.

However, if there are serious problems with the heart and blood vessels and there is too much injury and clotting, the vessels may become clogged with platelets, which can lead to strokes and heart disease. The sulfur compounds in garlic—particularly ajoene—give the platelets a slippery quality. They are less able to clump together, thus slowing down platelet aggregation. Garlic can be used effectively in the same way as a daily dose of aspirin to reduce or prevent platelet aggregation over an extended time.

Cancer

Studies have found that garlic blocks the formation of powerful carcinogens, called nitrosamines, which may be formed during the digestion of food. This may be why in populations in which people consume a large amount of garlic, there is a decreased incidence of all types of cancer. The antioxidants found in garlic may also contribute to this effect by protecting against the cell damage by cancer-causing free radicals. Studies show that use of garlic may also inhibit the growth of a variety of tumors. However, cancer-related studies are not conclusive and relate to consumption of raw or cooked garlic, not garlic supplements.

Infectious conditions

Eating garlic is good for helping the body's immune system resist infections. While garlic is not as strong as modern antibiotics, it is believed to kill some strains of bacteria that have become resistant to antibiotics. Studies have shown garlic treats yeast infections, and it can kill many of the viruses responsible for colds and flu. While daily consumption of garlic was once highly recommended for HIV-positive individuals, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) reported in 2002 that garlic supplements greatly reduced levels of saquinavir, an HIV protease inhibitor, in patients' blood. The NIH began cautioning patients who used garlic to control cholesterol levels who also used saquinavir or combination therapies, since garlic might interfere with their effectiveness.

Modern doctors, in reconsidering the causes of many diseases, have discovered that bacteria and viruses may be the cause of sicknesses that were formerly not thought to be caused by infections. Included are gastric ulcers, colitis, and Kaposi's sarcoma. Garlic may be useful in treating or preventing these due to its antimicrobial properties.

Diabetes

Garlic has the ability to lower and help keep blood sugar stable by helping to increase the amount of insulin available in the bloodstream. This action, together with garlic's ability to lower cholesterol and blood pressure, make it an excellent daily supplement for people with diabetes. A 2003 report showed that long-term use of garlic helped improve the blood vessel systems of diabetic rats.

Cancer

Garlic may also be helpful in reducing the risk for a number of cancers, according to a study by Swiss and Italian researchers published in the November 2006 issue of American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The meta-study looked at a number of previous studies of garlic and onion use among approximately 25,000 people in Italy and Switzerland. In people who ate 15–22 portions of onions and garlic per week, the reduced risk of various types of cancer was: oral and pharynx, 84%, esophageal, 88%, colorectal, 56%, laryngeal, 83%, breast, 25%, ovarian, 73%, prostate, 71%, and kidney, 38%.

Other health conditions

Garlic is effective in the treatment of numerous other conditions. The following list provides some examples:

  • The consumption of 1–3 cloves per day is useful for immune support and as a preventive against diseases and infection.
  • Warmed garlic oil in the ear canal can be used to treat ear infections.
  • Garlic can be used to treat respiratory complaints such as asthma and chronic bronchitis.
  • Garlic helps increase the body's ability to handle the digestion of meat and fats.
  • Garlic can be used to help kill and expel intestinal worms in both animals and humans.
  • When added to a pet's food, garlic helps repel fleas.
  • Garlic is helpful in getting rid of athlete's foot.
  • Garlic relieves gas and other stomach complaints.
  • The sulfur compounds found in garlic can bind to heavy metals and other toxins and help remove them from the body.
  • Garlic can be used externally for cuts, wounds, and skin eruptions.
  • The taste of garlic in mother's milk stimulates improved nursing. Infants eat more and nurse longer. They appear to relish the taste of slightly garlicky milk. The components of garlic that reach the infant through the mother's milk also may be helpful in relieving colic and infections.

Preparations

Used internally

Garlic can be eaten raw or cooked, taken as tablets or capsules, and used as a tincture or syrup.

The suggested dosage for fresh whole garlic is one to three cloves per day. The cloves can be chewed and held in the mouth or swallowed. Consuming raw garlic can actually be a pleasure if the herb is crushed or grated and mixed with food or a tablespoon of honey. The dosage for tinctures is 2–4 ml or 15–40 drops taken twice daily. One tablespoon of the syrup should be taken three times a day, or as needed to relieve coughing. Garlic oil should be slightly warmed, and 1–3 drops should be put in the affected ear 1–3 times per day.

Tablets and capsules are often more convenient to use than raw garlic, and they are more likely to be tolerated by garlic-sensitive individuals. Garlic pills also minimize the garlic taste and odor. Manufacturers vary on which components of the herb are emphasized.

In general, the following dosages are appropriate, but product labels also should be consulted:

  • 400–500 mg of allicin, twice daily
  • a dose equaling approximately 4,000 mcg of allicin potential, once or twice daily
  • 400–1,200 mg of dried garlic powder
  • 1,000–7,200 mg of aged garlic
  • a dose equivalent to 0.03–0.12 ml of garlic oil, three times per day

Manufactured garlic pills come in a variety of forms, and a great deal of controversy continued in the early 2000s about what type is best. Studying the manufacturers' literature and other information is important to make a good decision about which preparation to use. The types of garlic preparations include:

  • garlic oil capsules
  • encapsulated powdered garlic
  • odorless garlic pills
  • allicin-stabilized pills
  • aged garlic extract

Used externally

The raw cloves can be directly applied externally. A poultice can be made using grated or crushed fresh garlic. The herb material should be placed directly on the site of injury or eruption, either as isor mixed with enough honey to make a paste. The poultice can be held in place with a cloth or bandage.

A compress of garlic is less messy than a poultice and may be less irritating to the site of the injury. It is made by wrapping grated or crushed fresh garlic in a single piece of cheesecloth. As with the poultice, the compress is placed directly on the affected area.

Garlic oil can be made by putting a whole bulb of grated or finely chopped garlic into a pint jar of olive oil, and letting it sit undisturbed in a warm place, away from direct sunlight, for at least two weeks. Then it can be strained and refrigerated. The garlic oil will stay fresh in the refrigerator for up to two years.

A garlic suppository can be used to treat vaginal yeast or mild bacterial infections . A clove of fresh garlic should be peeled and slightly crushed or bruised. If crushed garlic irritates the vaginal tissue, an alternative that might lessen the desired antimicrobial effect is to use the whole, uncrushed garlic clove. The clove should be wrapped in a single layer of cheesecloth and inserted into the vaginal canal overnight for 5–10 days. Dental floss or a length of the cheesecloth can be used to make the suppository easier to retrieve. If the garlic causes a burning sensation, this can be eased with the insertion of plain yogurt into the vagina.

Precautions

Consumers will find a wide variety of garlic preparations on the market. Therefore, it is important to study manufacturers' claims, talk to knowledgeable practitioners, and find out which formulations are most effective for a given condition.

Due to the high concentration of sulfur compounds in garlic, it should be avoided by those allergic to sulfur. Garlic inhibits clotting, thereby causing increased bleeding times. Hemophiliacs and those on anticoagulant medication should consult a physician before taking garlic on a daily basis. This caution also applies to individuals who are preparing to undergo surgery. Medicinal use of garlic should be discontinued for at least 1–2 weeks before surgery. HIV patients receiving protease inhibitor or combination therapy should check with their physicians before using garlic supplements, as garlic may interfere with the therapy's effectiveness.

KEY TERMS

Anticoagulant —Any substance that reduces or prevents the blood's tendency to clot in order to prevent blockages in the arteries.

Antimicrobial —Having the ability to help the immune system resist or destroy a wide spectrum of disease-causing organisms.

Carcinogens —Chemical substances that cause cell mutations and, ultimately, cancer.

Cholesterol —A fatty substance found only in animals; used in the body to build cell walls and in the forming of bile and sex hormones.

Free radicals —Highly reactive toxins in the body that can bind to cells and damage them. Antioxidants are useful in neutralizing these compounds.

HDL —Beneficial lipoprotein molecules that transport cholesterol to the liver to be processed and excreted, thereby lowering cholesterol levels. Also known as good cholesterol.

LDL —Lipoproteins that transport cholesterol to body tissues for storage and thereby raise cholesterol levels. Also known as bad cholesterol.

Plaque —A buildup of fats, cholesterol, calcium, and fibrous tissue in the blood that tends to attach to and weaken artery walls.

Stroke —A condition caused by the blockage of blood flow and oxygen to the brain. Paralysis, coma, and death may result.

Suppository —Any treatment prepared to be inserted into the vagina or the rectum.

Side effects

Raw garlic can be very irritating to the digestive system. Excessive intake (usually, more than three or four cloves a day) can cause bloating, gas, cramping, diarrhea, and may even damage the red blood cells. When applied to the skin, garlic may cause itching, redness, and swelling. Garlic that is cooked, aged, or made into pills is not nearly as harsh on the system. However, these forms may not be as suitable as raw garlic in treating some conditions, particularly infections.

Garlic travels through the lungs and the bloodstream, giving a pungent garlic odor to the breath, skin, and perspiration. The odor will be present for at least 4–18 hours, sometimes even when so-called odorless garlic pills are used.

Interactions

Garlic does well when combined with coltsfoot or lobelia for treating asthma and bronchitis . Although onion is not as potent as garlic, it has similar actions, and the two often are combined. Use of garlic is contraindicated in individuals using the anticoagulant drug warfarin or certain HIV therapies.

Resources

BOOKS

Balch, Phyllis A. Prescription for Nutritional Healing, 4th ed. New York: Avery Publishing Group, 2007.

Fulder, Stephen. User's Guide to Garlic: Learn How This Remarkable Food Can Reduce Your Risk of Heart Disease and Cancer. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health, 2005.

Teuscher, Eberhard. Medicinal Spices. Stuttgart, Germany: MedPharm Scientific, 2005.

PERIODICALS

Bone, Kerry, and Michelle Morgan. “Green Tea and Garlic as Cardiovascular Life Extension Strategies.” Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients (December 2005): 51(6).

Borek, Carmia. “Health and Anti-Aging Benefits of Aged Garlic Extract.” Townsend Letter: The Examiner of Alternative Medicine (July 2007): 72(6).

Galeone, Carlotta, et al. “Onion and Garlic Use and Human Cancer.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (November 2006): 1027–1032.

Huber, Lia. “A Brilliant Bulb: Say No to the Common Cold with a Daily Dose of Garlic—And Make Your Taste Buds Happy, Too.” Natural Health (February 2007): 37(5).

Saare, Tiina. “Gorgeous Garlic: The Use of Garlic Dates Back Over 4,000 Years, When It Was Most Often Thought to Keep Evil at Bay. Today Research Shows Garlic Has Many Health Benefits, and It Doesn't Take a Culinary Genius to Know This Vegetable Can Enliven Almost Any Meal.” Swiss News (January 2006):50(2).

Toprak, Dilek, and Serap Demir. “Treatment Choices of Hypertensive Patients in Turkey.” Behavioral Medicine (Spring 2007): 5(6).

ORGANIZATIONS

American Association of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine. PO Box 162340, Sacramento, CA 95816. (866) 455-7999.

American Institute of Homeopathy. 801 N. Fairfax St., Suite 306, Alexandria, VA 22314. (888) 445-9988.

Australian Homeopathic Association. 6 Cavan Ave., Renown Park, SA 5008, Australia. (61) 8-8346-3961. http://www.homeopathyoz.org.

Homeopathic Medical Council of Canada. 3910 Bathurst St., Suite 202, Toronto, ON M3H 3N8, Canada. (416) 638-4622. http://www.hmcc.ca.

National Center for Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892. (888) 644-6226. http://www.nccam.nih.gov.

Patience Paradox

Ken R. Wells

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"Garlic." The Gale Encyclopedia of Senior Health: A Guide for Seniors and Their Caregivers. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Garlic." The Gale Encyclopedia of Senior Health: A Guide for Seniors and Their Caregivers. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/caregiving/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/garlic

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