Francisco Garmendia, nineteenth-century capitalist and early industrialist, Peruvian born in Argentina. In 1861, Garmendia established one of the first factories in Latin America, a textile factory in Lucre; he imported industrial machines from France and, in an impressive feat of entrepreneurship, transported them by mule across the southern Andes of Peru to the town of Quispicanchis, near Cuzco. The factory replaced the old colonial textile mills (obrajes) of that region. The woolen textile it produced was of a coarse quality targeted for purchase by the Indian population. The factory had chronic financial and technical problems and faced increasing competition by export-import commercial firms based in Arequipa, but remained in business as the only factory in Cuzco Department up to 1898.
See alsoTextile Industry: The Colonial Era .
Alberto Flores Galindo, Arequipa y el sur andino: Ensayo de historia regional (siglos XVIII-XX) (1977).
Contreras, Carlos. El aprendizaje del capitalismo: Estudios de historia económica y social del Perú republicano. Lima: IEP Ediciones, 2004.
Escandell Tur, Neus. Producción y comercio de tejidos coloniales: Los obrajes y chorrillos del Cusco, 1570–1820. Cusco, Perú: Centro de Estudios Regionales Andinos, Bartolomé de Las Casas, 1997.
Alfonso W. Quiroz
"Garmendia, Francisco." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 23, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/garmendia-francisco
"Garmendia, Francisco." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved April 23, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/garmendia-francisco
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.