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squid

squid, carnivorous marine cephalopod mollusk. The squid is one of the most highly developed invertebrates, well adapted to its active, predatory life. The characteristic molluscan shell is reduced to a horny plate shaped like a quill pen and buried under the mantle.

The mantle, the chief swimming organ of the animal, is modified into lengthwise fins along the posterior end of the body and projects forward like a collar around the head. As the mantle relaxes and contracts, the squid swims forward, upward, and downward. Water is expelled in jets from the muscular funnel located just below the head, propelling the squid backward in abrupt jetlike motions. Two of the ten sucker-bearing arms (used to steer in swimming) are tentacles that can seize prey, which is then cut into pieces by the animal's strong beaklike jaws.

The squid breathes through gills, and may emit a cloud of inky material from its ink sac when in danger. The circulatory and nervous systems are highly developed. The eye of the squid is remarkably similar to that of humans—an example of convergent evolution, as there is no common ancestor. Squids are also distinguished by internal cartilaginous supports. Some deep-sea forms have luminescent organs.

The common squid is found from Maine to the Carolinas, often moving in shoals. In the United States tons of squid are used for fish bait, particularly by the cod fisheries in New England. Squid is a favorite food in East Asia and in the Mediterranean area. Species range in size from about 2 in. (5 cm) to the proportions of Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni, the colossal squid, which is the largest of all invertebrates and may attain a mantle length of 13 ft (4 m) and total length of 33–46 ft (10–14 m), and the giant squid, Architeuthis dux, which has a mantle length of 7.4 ft (2.25 m) and is known to reach 43 ft (13 m) in total length.

Squids are classified in the phylum Mollusca, class Cephalopoda, order Teuthoidea.

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squid

squid / skwid/ • n. (pl. same or squids ) an elongated, fast-swimming cephalopod mollusk with ten arms (technically, eight arms and two long tentacles), typically able to change color. • Order Teuthoidea and Vampyromorpha, class Cephalopoda, in particular the common genus Loligo. See also giant squid. ∎  this mollusk used as food. ∎  an artificial bait for fish imitating a squid in form. ∎ military slang a sailor. • v. (squid·ded, squid·ding) [intr.] fish using squid as bait.

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squid

squid Any of numerous species of marine cephalopod molluscs that have a cylindrical body with an internal horny plate (the pen) that serves as a skeleton. It has eight short, suckered tentacles surrounding the mouth, in addition to which there are two longer, arm-like tentacles that can be shot out to seize moving prey. Several species of giant squid (genus Architeuthis) may reach 20m (65ft) in length. Class Cephalopoda; order Teuthoidea.

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SQUID

SQUID / skwid/ • n. Physics a device used in particular in sensitive magnetometers, which consists of a superconducting ring containing one or more Josephson junctions. A change by one flux quantum in the ring's magnetic flux linkage produces a sharp change in its impedance.

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squid

squid (calamar) Marine cephalopod with elongated body and eight arms, Loligo and Illex spp.

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squid

squid XVII. of unkn. orig
.

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squid

squidamid, backslid, bid, did, forbid, grid, hid, id, kid, Kidd, lid, Madrid, mid, outbid, outdid, quid, rid, skid, slid, squid, underbid, yid •scarabaeid • Aeneid • nereid •spermatozoid •Clwyd, Druid, fluid •noctuid • rabid • carabid • ibid •morbid • turbid • wretched

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squid

squid (or SQUID) (skwɪd) Electronics superconducting quantum interference device

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Squid

Squid

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Squid is the common name for a group of marine mollusks (phylum Mollusca) with highly developed eyes and brain, and complex swimming behavior. About one-half the length (24-36 in; 60-90 cm) of the common North Atlantic species Loligo pealei consists of its streamlined cylindrical body, and the other half is its set of eight arms and two arm-like tentacles.

These appendages are equipped with small suction-cups, and surround the mouth opening. Squids have no external shell, but have an internal stiffening structure known as the rod or pen. The squids of the Mediterranean are called calamares, from the Greek kalamos and Latin calamus, meaning writing-reed or pen. The body of squids has a pair of flexible, roughly triangular fins. The skin contains many pigment cells or chromatophores, capable of changing the color of the animal through expansion and contraction.

Squids are classified in the class Cephalopoda and subclass Coleoidea (Dibranchiata), which places them with octopuses and cuttlefishes. Mollusks in the subclass Coleoidea are separate from the chambered nautilus (subclass Nautiloidea) and the ammonoids (subclass Ammonoidea). Ammonoids became extinct at the end of the Cretaceous period. They were apparently active predators, with a coiled shell similar to the nautilus. Some species were up to 3 ft (1 m) in diameter.

The first fossil mollusks originated during the primary radiation of the Precambrian era. These were gastropods (snails), followed by bivalves. Nautiloids appear later, and the Coleoidea (squids and related forms) later still. In terms of lineage, therefore, squids and octopuses are the most recently evolved of the major groups of mollusks.

There are about 650 species of living Coleoidea. Stasek (1972) regarded the Coleoidea as the result of evolution of a nautiloid lineage, modified in the direction of loss of shelland increased streamlining, speed, and muscularization of the mantle. A group of squid-like animals called belemnoids appeared in the Permian period and flourished in the Jurassic and Cretaceous, leaving behind the fossil counterpart of the internal rod or pen of modern squids.

Reproduction in squids consists of the male inserting a packet of sperm into the mantle cavity of the female, using an arm especially adapted for this purpose, followed by egg laying on the ocean floor. The fertilized eggs, each about 0.01 in (2.5 mm) in diameter, develop in a mass of jelly, and hatch out as tiny squids, rather than as trochophore or veliger larvae as in other mollusks. Species of squids are found in all oceans, at all depths. The deep-sea species often have luminescent organs, which probably aid individuals to contact each other for breeding in absolute darkness.

The range of size of squids is extremely wide. The smallest squid, with one of the longest names, is Pickfordiateuthis pulchella. It is a shallow-water species less than 1 in (2.2 cm) long. The largest is a giant squid, Architeuthis dux, a deep-sea species growing as long as 59 ft (18 m). This giant squid is therefore about 800 times longer than the smallest one. Dwarf and giant species occur in other Mollusca; species of snails vary in diameter by about 300 times, and the largest and smallest bivalves differ in length by about 200 times.

Giant squids have been found dead on beaches in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres, and some have been captured off Australia and New Zealand. When the head and tentacles are fully extended, their total length may be up to 3.5 times the mantle length, great enough to inspire many sea-stories about deep-sea monsters. Scientific studies based on specimens of giant squid captured in the nets of trawlers have just begun. One study of tiny growth rings in statoliths of Architeuthis kirki suggested a life span of only about 2.5 years. (A statolith is a small, stone like part within the fluid-filled statocyst, an organ that enables squid to sense position and acceleration.) This species was taken at an average depth of 1,750 ft (530 m) off the New Zealand coast. The largest animal had a mantle length of 7 ft (2.14 m).

Squid are active swimmers, moving swiftly to capture prey and to avoid being captured themselves. Swimming speeds of up to 11 yards per second (10 m/s) have been recorded, about the same as a world-class sprinter running a 100-meter dash. The mantle cavity is normally filled with sea water, and when the muscles of the mantle contract at the same time, a jet of water is forced out through afunnel. A principal anatomical feature of this system of propulsion is a nerve center (ganglion) with a giant axon (extensions of a neuron) emerging from it and carrying a signals to all of the muscles via branched endings. This giant axon, 0.13-0.25 in (0.5-1.0 mm) in diameter, isgiant only in the sense that the axons of all other species are much smaller. Its size has been exploited in laboratory research, and has permitted crucial experiments that have advanced knowledge of how neurons work far beyond what was known before the giant axon was discovered. On the assumption that neurons throughout the animal kingdom function similarly, our understanding of the human nervous system has benefited greatly from study of the giant axon of squids.

Resources

BOOKS

Ellis, Richard. The Search for the Giant Squid: The Biology and Mythology of the Worlds Most Elusive Sea Creature. New York: Penguin, 1999.

Markle, Sandra. Outside and Inside the Giant Squid. New York: Walker & Co., 2005.

Nesis, K.N. Cephalopods of the World. Neptune City, NJ: TFH Publications, 1987.

PERIODICALS

Gauldie, R.W., West, I.F. and Forch, E.C.Statocyst statolith, and age estimation of the giant squid, Architeuthis kirki. Veliger. 37 (1994): 93-109.

C. S. Hammen

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Squid

Squid

Squid is the common name for a group of marine mollusks (order Mollusca) with highly developed eyes and brain , and complex swimming behavior . About one-half the length (24-36 in; 60-90 cm) of the common North Atlantic species Loligo pealei consists of its streamlined cylindrical body, and the other half is its set of eight arms and two arm-like tentacles. These appendages are equipped with small suction-cups, and surround the mouth opening. Squids have no external shell, but have an internal stiffening structure known as the rod or pen. The squids of the Mediterranean are called calamares, from the Greek kalamos and Latin calamus, meaning writing-reed or pen. The body of squids has a pair of flexible, roughly triangular fins. The skin contains many pigment cells or chromatophores, capable of changing the color of the animal through expansion and contraction.

Squids are classified in the class Cephalopoda and subclass Coleoidea (Dibranchiata), which places them with octopuses and cuttlefishes. Further classification places squids in order Decapoda and octopuses in the order Octopoda. Mollusks in the subclass coleoidea are separate from the chambered nautilus (subclass Nautiloidea) and the ammonoids (subclass Ammonoidea). Ammonoids became extinct at the end of the Cretaceous period. They were apparently active predators, with a coiled shell similar to the nautilus. Some species were up to 3 ft (1 m) in diameter.

The first fossil mollusks originated during the primary radiation of the Precambrian era. These were gastropods (snails ), followed by bivalves . Nautiloids appear later, and the Coleoidea (squids and related forms) later still. In terms of lineage, therefore, squids and octopuses are the most recently evolved of the major groups of mollusks.

There are about 650 species of living Coleoidea. Stasek (1972) regarded the Coleoidea as the result of evolution of a nautiloid lineage, modified in the direction of loss of shell "and increased streamlining, speed, and muscularization of the mantle." A group of squid-like animals called belemnoids appeared in the Permian period and flourished in the Jurassic and Cretaceous, leaving behind the fossil counterpart of the internal rod or pen of modern squids.

Reproduction in squids consists of the male inserting a packet of sperm into the mantle cavity of the female, using an arm especially adapted for this purpose, followed by egg laying on the ocean floor. The fertilized eggs, each about 0.01 in (2.5 mm) in diameter, develop in a mass of jelly, and hatch out as tiny squids, rather than as trochophore or veliger larvae as in other mollusks. Species of squids are found in all oceans, at all depths. The deep-sea species often have luminescent organs, which probably aid individuals to contact each other for breeding in absolute darkness.

The range of size of squids is extremely wide. The smallest squid, with one of the longest names, is Pickfordiateuthis pulchella. It is a shallow-water species less than 1 in (2.2 cm) long. The largest is a giant squid, Architeuthis dux, a deep-sea species growing as long as 59 ft (18 m). This giant squid is therefore about 800 times longer than the smallest one. Dwarf and giant species occur in other Mollusca; species of snails vary in diameter by about 300 times, and the largest and smallest bivalves differ in length by about 200 times.

Giant squids have been found dead on beaches in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres, and some have been captured off Australia and New Zealand. When the head and tentacles are fully extended, their total length may be up to 3.5 times the mantle length, great enough to inspire many sea-stories about deep-sea monsters. Scientific studies based on specimens of giant squid captured in the nets of trawlers have just begun. One study of tiny growth rings in statoliths of Architeuthis kirki suggested a life span of only about 2.5 years. This species was taken at an average depth of 1,750 ft (530 m) off the New Zealand coast. The largest animal had a mantle length of 7 ft (2.14 m). (A statolith is a small, stone-like part within the fluid-filled statocyst, an organ that enables squid to sense position and acceleration.)

Squid are active swimmers, moving swiftly to capture prey and to avoid being captured themselves. Swimming speeds of up to 11 yards per second (10 m/s) have been recorded, about the same as a world-class sprinter running a 109-yd (100-m) dash. The mantle cavity is normally filled with sea water , and when the muscles of the mantle contract at the same time, a jet of water is forced out through a "funnel." A principal anatomical feature of this system of propulsion is a nerve center (ganglion) with a giant axon (extensions of a neuron ) emerging from it and carrying a signals to all of the muscles via branched endings. This giant axon, 0.13-0.25 in (0.5-1.0 mm) in diameter, is "giant" only in the sense that the axons of all other species are much smaller. Its size has been exploited in laboratory research, and has permitted crucial experiments that have advanced knowledge of how neurons work far beyond what was known before the giant axon was discovered. On the assumption that neurons throughout the animal kingdom function similarly, our understanding of the human nervous system has benefited greatly from study of the giant axon of squids.


Resources

books

Nesis, K.N. Cephalopods of the World. TFH Publ. Neptune City, NJ: 1987.

periodicals

Gauldie, R.W., I.F. West, and E.C. Forch. "Statocyst statolith, and Age Estimation of the Giant Squid, Architeuthis kirki." Veliger. 37 (1994): 93-109.


C.S. Hammen

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