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pupa

pupa (pyōō´pə), name for the third stage in the life of an insect that undergoes complete metamorphosis, i.e., develops from the egg through the larva and the pupa stages to the adult. A complete metamorphosis is characteristic of members of the orders Coleoptera (beetles), Diptera (flies, mosquitoes, and gnats) and Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). Before entering the pupa stage the insect is an active larva, usually wormlike in form. The pupa is a resting stage in which the insect is transformed into an adult. It does not feed or increase in size, and typically it is outwardly inactive and covered by a hard integument. Internally, however, a great deal of metabolic activity occurs. Some larval organs are destroyed and some adult organs are initiated during this stage. Other adult organs develop from structures already present in the larva. At the end of the pupa stage, the integument is shed and the imago, or adult form, emerges. Pupae of moths usually have an additional outer covering, called a cocoon, built by the larva (called a caterpillar) just before it enters the pupa stage. Cocoons may be made of bits of woody material held together by silk strands, or woven entirely of silk. Some cocoons are formed on or under the ground, some under tree bark; others are suspended from branches or twigs. Some moths form cocoons by wrapping leaves around themselves and gluing them together with silk. Cocoon building occurs in other insects, e.g., wasps; the material and design of the cocoon vary greatly from one group to another. Very few butterflies make cocoons, but the butterfly pupa, called a chrysalis, is usually suspended by a silk thread, and its integument is often sculptured and brightly colored. The chrysalis of the monarch butterfly is soft green with gold spots. A few insects, e.g., the mosquito, have active pupae. The duration of the pupa stage varies in different insects from a few days to several months. Many insects pass the winter in the pupa stage, and the imago emerges in the spring.

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pupa

pupa The third stage of development in the life cycle of endopterygote insects. During the pupal stage locomotion and feeding cease and metamorphosis from the larva to the adult form takes place. There are three types of pupa. The commonest is the exarate or free pupa, in which the wings and other appendages are visible and movable. In the obtect type the wings are stuck to the body and immovable, as in the chrysalis of a butterfly or moth; and in the co-arctate type an exarate pupa develops within a hard barrel-shaped puparium, as in the housefly and other Diptera.

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pupa

pupa Non-feeding, developmental stage during which an insect undergoes complete metamorphosis. It generally occurs as part of a four-stage life cycle from the egg, through larva (such as a caterpillar), to pupa, then imago (winged adult). Most pupae consist of a protective outer casing, inside which the tissues of the insect undergo a drastic reorganization to form the adult body. Insects that undergo pupation include the many different kinds of butterfly and beetle and many kinds of fly. The pupa is often called a chrysalis in butterflies and moths.

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pupa

pupa The stage in the life cycle of an insect during which the larval form is reorganized to form the final, adult form. Pupae are frequently inactive, forming a hard shell (chrysalis) or silken covering (cocoon) about themselves while the very large changes associated with becoming adult take place.

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pupa

pu·pa / ˈpyoōpə/ • n. (pl. -pae / -ˌpē; -ˌpī/ ) an insect in its inactive immature form between larva and adult, e.g., a chrysalis. DERIVATIVES: pu·pal adj.

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pupa

pupa chrysalis. XIX. — modL. use of L. pūpa girl, doll.

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pupa

pupacoper, doper, eloper, Europa, groper, hoper, L-dopa, moper, no-hoper, opah, toper •interloper •blooper, cooper, Cowper, duper, grouper, Hooper, looper, pea-souper, pupa, scooper, snooper, stupa, stupor, super, trooper, trouper, whooper •pooper-scooper • party-pooper •paratrooper • mea culpa • chutzpah •crupper, cuppa, scupper, supper, upper •gulper, kalpa, pulper •bumper, dumper, gazumper, jumper, lumper, stumper, thumper •showjumper • diaper • galloper •developer •scalloper, walloper •chirper, sherpa, usurper

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