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octopus

octopus,cephalopod mollusk having no shell, eight muscular arms or tentacles, a pouch-shaped body, and two large, highly developed eyes. The prey (crabs, lobsters, and other shellfish) is seized by the sucker-bearing arms and pulled into the web of tissue at the base of the arms, paralyzed and partially digested by a poisonous salivary secretion, and chewed by the horny, beaklike jaws and the radula, or tooth ribbon. Octopuses move by pulling themselves along with their arms or by forcibly expelling water through the funnel or siphon in the manner of their near relative, the squid. Sometimes they construct barricades of large stones; most hide in rocky crevices at the approach of danger or cloud the water by ejecting dark "ink" from the ink sac. They also change color (from pinkish to brown) according to mood and environment, sometimes exhibiting rapid waves of color changes that sweep over the body. The 3-ft (91-cm) American devilfish is found off Florida and in the West Indies; a smaller species that reaches only 2 in. (5 cm) is found N of Cape Cod. The common octopus of the Mediterranean and the Atlantic occasionally reaches 10 ft (3 m) in length; the giant octopus of the Pacific may have a diameter of over 30 ft (9 m). Octopuses reproduce sexually. One of the arms of the male is modified into a sexual organ that deposits spermatophores in the mantle cavity of the female. The eggs are encased in capsules and attached to a rock, where the female guards them. The young hatch directly, without a larval stage. Octopus is eaten in many parts of the world. Octopuses are classified in the phylum Mollusca, class Cephalopoda, order Octopoda, family Octopodidae, genus Octopus.

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octopus

oc·to·pus / ˈäktəpəs/ • n. (pl. octopuses ) 1. a cephalopod (Octopus and other genera, order Octopoda) with eight sucker-bearing arms, a soft saclike body, strong beaklike jaws, and no internal shell. 2. fig. an organization or system perceived to have far-reaching and typically harmful effects. DERIVATIVES: oc·to·poid adj. / -ˌpoid/

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octopus

octopus Predatory, cephalopod mollusc with no external shell. Its sac-like body has eight powerful suckered tentacles. They feed mostly on crabs and other shellfish, paralysing their prey with poison. Many of the 150 species are small, but the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) grows to 9m (30ft). Family Octopodidae.

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octopus

octopus Marine cephalopod (Octopus spp.) with beak‐like mouth surrounded by eight tentacles bearing suckers.

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octopus

octopus XVIII. — Gr. oktpous, (usu.) oktápous, f. oct EIGHT + poús FOOT.

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octopus

octopusChiapas, tapas •campus, grampus, hippocampus, pampas •metacarpus, streptocarpus •trespass • Priapus • Lepus •Aristippus, Lysippus •Olympus • Oedipus • platypus •pompous •corpus, porpoise •Canopus, opus •lupus, upas •compass, encompass, rumpus •octopus •multipurpose, purpose

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Octopus

Octopus ★★ 2000 (PG-13)

Giant mutant octopus lurking in the ocean depths is disturbed by a U.S. Navy submarine and decides to make it lunch. This, however, is not the only bad news. Seems the sub was transporting a terrorist who escapes in the confusion, and winds up on a cruise ship. He thinks he's safe but our eight-legged horror is just getting started. Special effects are pretty lame but the film doesn't take itself serously and the humor covers a lot of holes. 99m/C VHS, DVD . Carolyn Lowery, David Beecroft, Jay Harrington, Ravil Isyanov; D: John Eyres; W: Michael D. Weiss; C: Adolfo Bartoli; M: Marco Marinangelo. VIDEO

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Octopus

Octopus

The octopus is an invertebrate in the phylum Mollusca (the mollusks), class Cephalopoda, which also includes nautilids, cuttlefish, and squid. Octopi are cephalopod mollusks which are generally considered to be the most advanced members of the class. There are about 220 species of octopus. Octopi are found in every ocean of the world, ranging in size from a tiny Philippine species barely an inch across to giant specimens that measure as much as 13 ft (4 m) in length and weigh 165 lb (75 kg). All octopi are predators.

The octopus has no hard, protective shell; instead, its boneless body is covered by the soft mantle. The body of the octopus is rounded, like a head, and positioned, apparently, above the octopuss eyes, which makes it look even more head like. The eyes are one of the octopuss most striking features, and are comparable in complexity and design to human eyes.

The octopus has eight legs, lined with double rows of suction cups, that encircle its parrot-like beak. These cups are powerful; it requires 6 oz (170 g) of force to remove a single attached cup (of typical size), so the combined suction power of dozens of suckers makes a very secure grip. The octopus attaches the suction cups by placing them on the surface it wishes to cling to, and then tightening the tiny muscles at the top of each sucker, producing a vacuum effect.

Each of the octopuss skin cells contains a packet of pigments (red, yellow, blue, brown, and black)

surrounded by muscles that, when contracted, can balloon the packet to many times its original size. When this happens, the entire octopus changes colora trick it can perform faster than any other color-changing animal. These color changes often seem to be associated with moods: a frightened octopus will turn stark white, an angry one, fiery red. A contented octopus usually is the color that will camouflage it with its surroundings. The skin can also change texture, becoming smooth, spiny, or lumpy as the octopus wishes. A few years ago a remarkable species of mimic octopus was discovered that combines changes of shape with color alterations to make itself look like more dangerous creatures, such as banded seasnakes or poisonous flatfish. What makes the mimic octopus so remarkable is that it can mimic radically different-looking creatures, and does so by changing its own shape and coloration dramatically. While mimicry is common in nature, no other known species can alter itself so drastically.

The octopus distracts attackers by squirting out a jet of sepia, or ink, through its siphon. The resulting ink cloud is similar in size to the octopus, which immediately turns pale as it shoots out the ink. The octopus quickly flees, swimming backward via powerful jets of water sprayed through its siphon. Predators of the octopus include orcas, dolphins, sharks, groupers, moray eels, seals, and the Atlantic halibut.

Although the octopus has a dangerous reputation, it is, in fact, a shy creature that prefers to be left alone, even by other octopuses. Attacks on human swimmers rarely, if ever, happen except when the octopus has been tormented and bites its attacker. The hard beak can inflict deep wounds, and the blue-ringed octopus of Australian waters injects potentially fatal venom with its bite. The octopuss beak is used normally to subdue prey, such as fish, other mollusks, and crabs. When an octopus catches a fish, the octopus kills it quickly by biting the fishs backbone just behind the head. Single-shelled mollusks cannot be pulled apart by the octopuss strong suckers, so the octopus drills a hole in the shell with its radula, or rasp-covered tongue, a tactic typical of predatory mollusks. Once the mollusk shell is breached, the octopus injects venom that kills the snail and makes it semi-liquid.

Octopi are the most intelligent mollusks, and their nervous systems are of interest because they are organized along quite different lines than mammalian nervous systems, which are highly centralized. The octopuss nervous system has a central component that is often said to be comparable to a birds, plus an additional, distributed component spread throughout its arms and body in a network of nerve centers or ganglia. In particular, the motions of each arm are governed by an embedded system of some 50 million neurons that encodes the movements necessary for executing complex, coordinated movements and so relieves the brain of this work.

Octopuses prefer to live alone and come together only during the mating season. Copulation consists of the male slipping the tip of one of its arms into the females mantle; this arm has a groove running along its length down which pass packets of sperm. In some species, the sperm are contained in the tip of an arm, which breaks off inside the female. After mating, the female octopus retires to a small cave, where she lays several thousand eggs. She weaves them into strings, which she attaches to the roof of the cave. As the eggs develop, she keeps them clean by blowing jets of water on them and running her arms through them. Hatchling octopuses are tiny replicas of their parents.

Every octopus has two optical glands (so named because they sit upon the optical nerves) which shut off the octopuss desire to eat once it has mated. This means that once a male or female octopus has reproduced, it will soon die, whether in the wild or in captivity. Most octopi live for about two years.

F. C. Nicholson

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Octopus

Octopus

The octopus is an invertebrate in the class Mollusca (the molluscs), which also includes snails , clams, and squid . Octopi are cephalopod molluscs which are generally considered to be the most advanced members of the class. There are about 220 species of octopus. Octopi are found in every ocean of the world, ranging in size from a tiny Philippine species barely an inch across to giant specimens that measure as much as 13 ft (4 m) in length and weigh 165 lb (75 kg). All octopi are predators.

The octopus has no hard, protective shell; instead, its boneless body is covered by the soft mantle. The body of the octopus is rounded, like a head, and positioned, apparently, "above" the octopus's eyes, which makes it look even more head like. The eyes are one of the octo pus's most striking features, and are comparable in complexity and design to human eyes.

The octopus has eight legs, lined with double rows of suction cups, that encircle its parrotlike beak. These cups are powerful; it requires 6 oz (170 g) of force to remove a single attached cup (of typical size), so the combined suction power of dozens of suckers makes a very secure grip. The octopus attaches the suction cups by placing them on the surface it wishes to cling to, and then tightening the tiny muscles at the top of each sucker, producing a vacuum effect.

Each of the octopus's skin cells contains a packet of pigments (red, yellow, blue, brown, and black) surrounded by muscles that, when contracted, can balloon the packet to many times its original size. When this happens, the entire octopus changes color—a trick it can perform faster than any other color-changing animal . These colors changes often seem to be associated with moods: a frightened octopus will turn stark white, an angry one, fiery red. A contented octopus usually is the color that will camouflage it with its surroundings. The skin can also change texture, becoming smooth, spiny, or lumpy as the octopus wishes. A few years ago a remarkable species of "mimic" octopus has been discovered that combines changes of shape with color alterations to make itself look like more dangerous creatures, such as banded sea snakes or poisonous flatfish . What makes the mimic octopus so remarkable is that it can mimic radically different-looking creatures, and does so by changing its own shape and coloration dramatically. While mimicry is common in nature, no other known species can alter itself so drastically.

The octopus distracts attackers by squirting out a jet of sepia, or ink, through its siphon. The resulting ink cloud is similar in size to the octopus, which immediately turns pale as it shoots out the ink. The octopus quickly flees, swimming backward via powerful jets of water sprayed through its siphon. Predators of the octopus include orcas, dolphins, sharks , groupers, moray eels, seals , and the Atlantic halibut.

Although the octopus has a dangerous reputation, it is, in fact, a shy creature that prefers to be left alone, even by other octopuses. Attacks on human swimmers rarely, if ever, happen except when the octopus has been tormented and bites its attacker. The hard beak can inflict deep wounds, and the blue-ringed octopus of Australian waters injects potentially fatal venom with its bite. The octopus's beak is used normally to subdue prey , such as fish , other molluscs, and crabs . When an octopus catches a fish, the octopus kills it quickly by biting the fish's backbone just behind the head. Single-shelled molluscs cannot be pulled apart by the octopus's strong suckers, so the octopus drills a hole in the shell with its radula, or rasp-covered tongue, a tactic typical of predatory molluscs. Once the mollusc shell is breached, the octopus injects venom that kills the snail and makes it semiliquid.

Octopi are the most intelligent molluscs, and their nervous systems are of interest because they are organized along quite different lines than mammalian nervous systems, which are highly centralized. The octopus's nervous system has a central component that is often said to be comparable to a bird's, plus an additional, distributed component spread throughout its arms and body in a network of nerve centers or ganglia. In particular, the motions of each arm are governed by an embedded system of some 50 million neurons that encodes the movements necessary for executing complex, coordinated movements and so relieves the brain of this work.

Octopuses prefer to live alone and come together only during the mating season. Copulation consists of the male slipping the tip of one of its arms into the female's mantle; this arm has a groove running along its length down which pass packets of sperm. In some species, the sperm are contained in the tip of an arm, which breaks off inside the female. After mating, the female octopus retires to a small cave , where she lays several thousand eggs. She weaves them into strings, which she attaches to the roof of the cave. As the eggs develop, she keeps them clean by blowing jets of water on them and running her arms through them. Hatchling octopuses are tiny replicas of their parents.

Every octopus has two optical glands (so named because they sit upon the optical nerves) which shut off the octopus's desire to eat once it has mated. This means that once a male or female octopus has reproduced, it will soon die, whether in the wild or in captivity. Most octopi live for about two years.

F. C. Nicholson

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http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.