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Salisbury

Salisbury (Sarum). Cathedral city in Wiltshire. It originated with an Iron Age hill-fort which housed successively a Roman, Anglo-Saxon, and Norman town. In the 1070s it acquired a cathedral, which in the 12th cent. was a major intellectual centre. In 1219 the bishop moved to a new, level site 1½ miles south; a large cathedral was built in uniform style c.1220–1320, its tower crowned by the tallest surviving medieval spire in Europe. The bishop also laid out a new town on a grid plan, the best-known planned town of medieval England. The city flourished through the cloth industry, becoming the fourth largest English town in the 15th cent.; acquired independence from the bishops in 1612; and lost its cloth industry in the 18th cent. The original town (Old Sarum’) had long been deserted, and was the most notorious of the ‘rotten boroughs’ until disfranchised in 1832.

David M. Palliser

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Salisbury (cities, United States)

Salisbury:1 City (1990 pop. 20,592), seat of Wicomico co., Md., on the Eastern Shore, at the head of the Wicomico River; settled 1732, inc. 1872. Poultry raising and processing is the major industry. Clothing, machinery, and boats are manufactured. The city is also a trade center for the Eastern Shore. Salisbury Univ. is there.

2 City (1990 pop. 23,087), seat of Rowan co., W central N.C., in the Piedmont industrial region; inc. 1770. There is food processing, and machinery, furniture, electrical and medical equipment, building materials, textiles and apparel, aluminum, and chemicals are manufactured. Salisbury is the seat of Catawba College and Livingstone College. The city has a number of 18th- and 19th-century buildings, churches, and homes. The national cemetery in Salisbury was the site of one of the largest Confederate prison camps during the Civil War; approximately 11,700 Union soldiers are buried there.

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Salisbury (town, England)

Salisbury (sôlz´bərē) or New Sarum (sâr´əm), town (1991 pop. 36,890), Wiltshire, S England. A market town, Salisbury was founded in 1220 when the bishopric was moved there from Old Sarum. Squares or "checkers" are characteristic of the regular plan of the town. Industries include cattle and poultry marketing, brewing, leatherwork, and printing. The cathedral, a splendid example of Early English architecture with the highest spire in England (404 ft/123 m), was built mainly between 1220 and 1260. Some of the materials were brought from the razed cathedral of Old Sarum. The 13th-century palace of the bishops, numerous medieval churches and other old buildings, and the Salisbury and South Wiltshire Museum are of interest. There is a teacher-training college and a theological college. The town is the Melchester of Thomas Hardy's Wessex novels. Stonehenge is 10 mi (16 km) to the north.

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Salisbury (former name of Harare, Zimbabwe)

Salisbury: see Harare, Zimbabwe.

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Salisbury

Salisbury Former name of Harare

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Salisbury

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Salisbury

SALISBURY

SALISBURY , former capital of Rhodesia (renamed Harare and now capital of *Zimbabwe). Organized Jewish life in Salisbury dates from June 2, 1895, when, under the chairmanship of Joseph van Praagh (Salisbury's first Jewish mayor), a meeting of 20 men and two women founded the Salisbury Hebrew Congregation. The first synagogue was built in 1901 and the present one in 1920. The first minister was appointed in 1909. The first Sephardi arrived in Salisbury in 1895, and from 1905 there was a large influx into Rhodesia of Sephardim, mainly from the Aegean island of *Rhodes. They were scattered in all parts of the country, and it was not until 1931 that a separate Sephardi Hebrew Congregation was founded in Salisbury. Its first rabbi was appointed in 1944. There were a few Sephardim in centers outside Salisbury, but most have gravitated to the capital. The Ashkenazi and Sephardi congregations built imposing communal centers, comprising synagogues, schools, halls, and youth centers. A Reform Congregation was started in 1960. Both the Sephardi and Ashkenazi congregations maintained an afternoon Hebrew and religious school with a total enrollment of 220 pupils. A Jewish primary day school opened in 1960. In the decade between 1958 and 1968 the Salisbury Jewish community grew rapidly and eventually outstripped the one in *Bulawayo. Jews have played an active role in the developing Salisbury and the city has had a number of Jewish mayors: J. van Praagh (1900–01), H.L. Lexard (1914–17), H. Pichanick (1955–57), I. Pitch (1961–62, 1967–68), and B. Ponter (1964–65). In 1968 the Jewish population of Salisbury was about 2,500, two-thirds of them Ashkenazim and the rest Sephardim. With the outbreak of civil war in Rhodesia and the transfer of power to the black majority at the end of the 1970s, the Jewish population of the city dropped sharply, reaching barely 350 in 2003.

bibliography:

M. Konviser, Golden Jubilee of the Salisbury Hebrew Congregation (1945); idem, in: Rhodesian Jewish Times (Sept.1950), 5–9; M. Gitlin, The Vision Amazing (1950), index.

[Maurice Wagner]

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